Solenoid Valves

Go to Specific Subject: Solenoid Valve Specification | Solenoid Valve Selection Installation, Maintenance and Troubleshooting | Low Power Solenoid Valves | Solenoid Valves in Safety Instrumented Systems | Miniature Solenoid Valves | Solenoid Valves for Offshore Applications | Solenoid Valves for Miscellaneous Applications


Solenoid Valve Specification

The following excellent links are from ASCO.

  • Considering Valve Specification & Installation, Flow Control - Best Practices & Technology to Ensure Long-Term Performance - Matt Migliore - When specifying valves for a given application, it is important to first determine the intendedfunction. A lack of functional understanding is often where valve performance issues begin.The user, rather than fully consideringthe application in which the valve will operate finds later on that the valve isn’t all that well suited to meet the needs of the job it is being asked to do.Thus it is worthwhile answering a few simple questions when considering a valve purchase.
  • Solenoid Valve Technology,Technical Characteristics Function, Terminology and Construction types - A very useful overview of solenoid operation, construction, terminology and operating parameters.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Solenoid Valves - Have a question regarding solenoid valves? This excellent resource may well have the answer.
  • Optimizing Power Management in Solenoid Valves - By Stephen Glaudel Vice President, Engineering ASCO Valve, Americas - This paper covers the basic operation of solenoid valves, including useful techniques and technology for optimizing performance, power consumption, and cost of operation, in either AC or DC powered applications.
  • Engineering Information - Importance of Properly Sizing Solenoid Valves - It is important to properly size a valve as there are undesirable effects in both undersizing and oversizing. This technical information sheet also includes the definition of Kv, data on Flow Data, Flow Factor, Orifice Size and sample problems. 
  • Solenoid Valve Engineering Information - This excellent engineering information sheet details most of what you need to know in regards to selecting a solenoid valve.  It details maximum/minimum pressures and temperatures, viscosity, response times, valve seat tightness and degrees of protection provided by electrical enclosures (IP code).
  • Solenoid and Pressure Operated Valve Technology - Function, Terminology and Construction Types.
  • Proportional Solenoid Valves - Most flow control valves work on an “on/off” basis. They are either fully open or fully closed. Proportional valves, however, operate with a “proportional” action. By varying the electrical input to a proportional valve, the flow of the fl uid through the valve can be continuously and steplessly adjusted between 0 to 100% of the maximum rated flow.
  • Valve Sizing Calculator from ASCO - This calculator provides options for liquid, gas and steam and also has conversion tools.
  • Rubbers, Plastics and Metals used in Solenoid Valves - Technical Information Sheet.
  • Chemical Resistance Guide - A useful Technical Information Sheet - ASCO valves are available to control most acids, alcohol, bases, solvents and corrosive gases and liquids. Modifi ed or special designs are sometimes required depending upon the fluid and application. Corrosion occurs either as a chemical or electro-chemical reaction. Therefore, consideration must be given to both the galvanic and electromotive force series, as well as to pressure, temperature and other factors that might be involved in the application. This guide provides information on most common corrosive and non-corrosive, unmixed gases and liquids.
  • Solenoid and Pressure Operated Valve Technology - ISO 1219 Symbols - Symbols used for different combinations of Solenoid Valves. Solenoid Operators, Coils and Spare Parts Kits - Coil identification and basic design considerations.
  • Solenoid Engineering Information -  Maximum/minimum pressures and temperatures viscosity, response times, valve seat tightness degrees of protection provided by electrical enclosures (IP code).
  • Useful Engineering Conversion Tables for Solenoid Valves
  • Understanding European versus U.S. Temperature Code Ratings for Solenoid Operated Valves - Manny Arceo - Solenoid valves are vital components of many process automation systems. Users must depend on these valves to operate flawlessly in hazardous or explosive environments; to comply with safety regulations; and to stay up and running for continuous, safe operation of the process and the plant. Understanding the differences between valves is critical in specifying and selecting the correct models. That’s a useful skill for end-user application and process engineers, as well as for design engineers employed by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such understanding can be hard to come by. Particularly difficult for many buyers to work with: differences in valves’ temperature ratings. These T-code ratings are assigned by approval agencies in the U.S., Europe, and other regions worldwide as industrial globalization increases. This paper examines and explains differences among the world’s major temperature ratings for solenoid valves. (Note that the ratings may apply to some other electrical devices as well.) It should serve as a concise guide to understanding and applying these ratings in order to correctly specify these components.
  • Solenoid Pilot Valves for Valve Actuation -  Bill Reeson - This paper helps users select the correct pilot valve construction for an application - Thanks to ASCO and valve magazine.
  • Understanding Applications, Uses Key to Solenoid Valve Selection, Plant Engineering - David Zolobinski, William Mudd and Gregory Byrne - This paper covers common applications and issues associated with solenoid valves. It also has a very useful trouble shooting guide plus a section on new developments - Thanks to ASCO and .

Other Links

Need Solenoid Valve Information? - This website a comprehensive source of solenoid valve information Direct-acting, semi-direct acting, pilot-operated, pinching-type, latching-type, normally open, and normally closed valves are all different types (or sub-types) of solenoid valves. Knowing the basics about each type will help you to choose the correct one for your application - from Solenoid Valve Info.

Understanding Solenoid Valves - Solenoid valves are highly engineered products that can be used in many diverse and unique system applications. A brief overview of the components and functional varieties of solenoid valves  - from achrnews.

Technical Principals of Solenoid Valves from

Solenoid Valve Engineering Information from Spartan Scientific

Solenoid Valve Common Symbols - From Connexion Developments Ltd

Solenoid Valve Seal Basic Guide - Selecting the correct sealing material for your solenoid valve requires an understanding of available sealing materials. Seals are usually the most limiting factor of a solenoid valve. The seal selection should take the following items into consideration;
- Chemical properties of the media
- Temperature of the media
- Pressure to be used
From solenoidvalvesuk


Solenoid Valve Selection Installation, Maintenance and Troubleshooting

The following excellent links are from ASCO.

Other Links

To Repair or Replace? - Solenoid Valve Maintenance & Troubleshooting Strategy - Michael D’Amato - The small yet robust solenoid valve is a powerful electromechanical gatekeeper. It has the important task of controlling the flow of liquid, air, gases or particles for a larger system. Yet even the most reliable of valves can fatigue or become inoperable, thus shutting down or affecting a system’s performance. As with any mechanical apparatus, proactive maintenance of a solenoid valve can extend life and ensure consistent operation - from

Solenoid Valves Trouble Shooting Guide & FAQ - A useful troubleshooting guide from solenoidvalvesuk.


Low Power Solenoid Valves

How New Low-Power Solenoid Valve Technology Changes The Game - Fabio Okada, Jack Haller, and Manny Arceo - Process plants worldwide often place considerable reliance on low-power solenoid valves. They are used as pilot valves to open and close larger ball or butterfly valves, or on control valves (installed between positioner and actuator) for fail-safe air release if there’s a loss of power. They work by pressurizing or depressurizing associated actuators. A new generation of even lower-power valves is now changing the rules of the power consumption game. These products are of interest to designers working for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and valve assemblers, as well as for end-user engineers anyone who specifies solenoid valves for projects in refining, upstream oil and gas, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and life sciences, food and beverage, and power. This report taps the expertise of manufacturers at the forefront of low-power solenoid valve technology. It shows how innovation is offering new possibilities - and challenges - via topics such as integrated solutions, clogging and other reliability issues, usefulness in point to point and bus networks, other cost savings, remote applications, and relevant industry standards. Finally, it suggests which characteristics buyers should seek out in selecting the newest - and most consistently dependable - low-power valve technologies - from ASCO.

Current Concerns How Some Supervisory and Leakage Currents Can Affect Today’s Low-Power Solenoid Valves - Manny Arceo and Jack Haller - As fluid automation users embrace the advantages of new devices that draw unprecedentedly low levels of power, a few users are experiencing application issues that don’t occur with older, higher-power-consumption equipment. These issues center around supervisory and leakage currents generated by input/output (I/O) control systems. Such currents can cause problems when interacting with new low-power components such as solenoid valves and sensors. This paper will review concerns that can arise when applying low-power and electronically enhanced solenoid valves within certain control systems. It will outline the limited set of cases where problems can exist, and explain how to identify such cases. Finally, it will provide tips and suggestions for possible workarounds or solutions that users might consider after consulting I/O system manufacturers or their manuals- from ASCO.


Solenoid Valves in Safety Instrumented Systems

The following excellent links are from ASCO.

  • Safety Manual for Safety Integrated Systems - This Safety Manual provides information necessary to design, install, verify and maintain a Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) utilizing an ASCO Redundant Control System, RCS. This manual provides necessary requirements for meeting the IEC 61508 or IEC 61511 functional safety standards.
  • Functional Safety Solutions for the Process Control Industry - ASCO solenoid pilot valves are an integral part of the final control element for any safety instrumented system (SIS) or critical application. ASCO offers 3 solenoid pilot valve solutions that are widely used in the process control industry; individual 3-way pilot valves, manual reset valves, and redundant pilot valve systems. Each of these solutions are proven in use as a pilot valve in critical applications and in safety instrumented systems. Certified pilot valves per IEC 61508 Parts 1 and 2 are rated SIL3 capable for domestic and international markets (ATEX). ASCO understands the need to keep your process running, but also understands that the process must shut down when commanded.
  • Eight Critical Factors in Purchasing Offshore Pilot Valves - Fabio Okada and Emma Tejada - Stainless steel pilot valves play small but critical roles in the control of offshore platforms and other demanding oil and gas production operations. Acting as pilots for process and larger emergency shutdown (ESD) valves, these valves are typically installed in a platform’s pneumatic logic control panels. The valves are usually exposed to salt water and other challenging elements, so valve manufacturers all standardize on 316L stainless steel valve bodies. Panel builders, assemblers, OEMs, contractors, and end users can choose from a wide variety of models, including air-operated, manually operated, solenoid-operated, and many more. Specifiers and buyers must consider all the critical factors that bear on a given design’s reliability. The April 2010 platform loss and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico have only sharpened the industry’s focus. In the case of pilot valves, this means that operators must have robust valves that perform efficiently each time, every time. This report considers several problems that interfere with the efficient, reliable performance of conventional pilot valves in offshore use. It also highlights design changes that have addressed these problems in newer models. Note: Onshore drillers may also specify these valves, taking advantage of their robust construction or consolidating purchasing when operating both onshore and offshore sites.
  • The Insiders’ Guide to Modular Gas Valves - Gerry Longinetti and James Chiu - Fuel gas shutoff valves represent the main line of defence in combustion devices such as burners and boilers. They’re key to the safe operation of equipment for non residential comfort heating, commercial and industrial heating, and power and steam generation applications worldwide. While conventional modular gas valve designs are popular and effective, the latest generation of valves has even more dramatic improvements. Recent technological advancements in models such as new modular gas valves from ASCO offer breakthrough features and benefits. These include higher flows, more compact footprints, and greater modularity and flexibility to enable downsizing of fuel train components, as well as broader temperature ranges, higher close-off pressures, more immediate availability, and reduced costs of ownership. Tapping the expertise of valve manufacturing insiders, this report reveals how original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users alike can take maximum advantage of these new factors. It’s intended to offer useful guidance in choosing the right valve for a variety of vital applications.
  • Effective Compliance with IEC 61508 When Selecting Solenoid Valves for Safety Systems - David Park and George Wahlers - Certified solenoid valves properly used in Safety Instrumented Systems are important elements of any corporate risk mitigation strategy. This report addresses these issues in developing a compliant SIS using valves and Redundant Control Systems. Making the right choices in safety system planning and in valve supplier selection can affect design time, costs, and effort - as well as the safety of the plant itself.  

Other Links

How to Specify Solenoid Valves for a Particular Safety Integrity Level - S.A. Nagy - Selection must be done with care and understanding of safety and reliability standards to avoid the risks associated with an operational failure of a critical plant system - thanks to


Miniature Solenoid Valves

The Insider’s Guide To Applying Miniature Solenoid Valves - Equipment designers frequently must incorporate miniature solenoid valves into their pneumatic designs. These valves are important components of medical devices and instrumentation as well as environmental, analytical, and similar product applications. However, all too often, designers find themselves frustrated. They face compromise after compromise. Pressure for increasingly miniaturized devices complicates every step of the design and valve selection process. And missteps can wreak havoc. How do designers balance the needs for reliability, extended service life, and standards compliance against often-contradictory performance requirements such as light weight, high flow, and optimum power use? This report consolidates the expert views of designers and manufacturers with wide experience applying miniature solenoid valves for myriad uses across multiple industries. It presents a true insider’s guide to which requirements are critical for common applications. It also highlights new valve technologies that may lessen or eliminate those troubling compromises - from ASCO.


Solenoid Valves for Offshore Applications

Stainless Steel Pilot Valves for Offshore Applications - The series’ unique design eliminates the dormancy or “sticking” problems that can occur in control valves installed in the pneumatic logic panels that control monitoring safety systems in offshore oil and gas production facilities - from ASCO.


Solenoid Valves for Miscellaneous Applications

The following excellent links are from ASCO.

Solenoid Valves for Low Temperature Applications

Cold Hard Facts: Five Key Criteria for Selecting Low-Temperature Valves - Bob Cadwell - This paper examines five key qualities to look for when purchasing valves, cylinders, and other fluid automation devices for application in low ambient temperatures.

Solenoid Valves for Oil and Gas Heating Equipment

Breakthrough Solenoid Valve Technology for Upstream Oil and Gas Heating Equipment - Bob Cadwell, Gerry Longinetti, and James Chiu - Low-temperature stainless steel fuel shutoff valves are usually utilized for on/off control of fuel gas within gas fuel trains in process heating system burners. These systems are widely used by oil and gas firms as well by as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that produce gas heating equipment or burner management systems (BMSs) and controls in upstream oil and gas pipelines and tanks. For valve manufacturers, these uses present a relatively specialized, rather challenging application. Environmental conditions at the point of use are often difficult. Ideally, valves should deliver reliable operation despite constraints on factors ranging from power consumption to service availability. Conversely, outdated controls can pose problems -  including poor performance, noncompliance with current regulations, and triggering of environmental concerns. In recent years, a new generation of solenoid valve technology has been changing the shutoff valve game. Their modern designs provide pipeline and tank heating systems with robust, durable performance; safety; and regulatory compliance - all while increasing efficiency and productivity.

Potable Water

How New Lead-Free Regulations Will Impact Your Selection Of Potable Water Valves - Paola Gutierrez - Recent legislation in several states has tightened regulation of lead content in the components of potable (drinkable) water treatment systems. Other states may well be considering similar moves. This pace of regulation seems unlikely to slacken. The message from regulators is clear: Get the lead out. However, what options are open to construction end users and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of these systems? Construction managers don’t make the equipment they install. And OEMs often assemble most of their systems from already manufactured components. Of compliant components they can specify, which currently meet their requirements for price, reliability, and performance? This report examines the choices facing specifiers and purchasers of small solenoid valves for potable water systems. It weighs the advantage and disadvantages of brass, plastic, and stainless steel designs. Finally, it suggests the solutions that smart planners should consider for current and future use.

Understanding the New United States Lead-Free Water System Regulations and Choosing Valves to Comply - Anne-Sophie Kedad-Chambareau - In the U.S., regulations governing lead content of the components of potable water systems have seen considerable changes as safety restrictions tighten. The federal law in effect since January 2014 dictates much lower lead content for certain systems and components than in the past. Manufacturers of potable water equipment and systems - including drinking water fountains, R/O (reverse osmosis) systems, coffee machines, and commercial kitchen equipment - as well as equipment maintenance contractors are affected. Many remain uncertain how the new regulations will impact their manufacturing and purchasing. This report outlines relevant sections of the law. It then focuses on the choices facing specifiers and purchasers who need to select important components of these systems - two-way solenoid valves - to comply. It considers the calculations that must be made to determine average lead content. Finally, it discusses the pros and cons of common valve materials (brass, composite/plastic, stainless steel, and lead-free brass), as well as other selection advantages. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and contractors will get useful information to ensure their equipment remains efficient, safe, and compliant.

Reverse Osmosis Systems

Seven Things You Must Know Before Selecting Solenoid Valves For Your Reverse Osmosis System - Anne-Sophie Kedad-Chambareau , Roy Bogert and David Park - Membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO) filtration systems offer valuable service in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. They purify water, improve taste, and provide savings in food and beverage processing; increase energy efficiency in boilers; and supply a range of other benefits in applications from water jet cutting, vehicle washing, and humidification to restaurant and grocery use. One important component of these systems, typically used at several critical points, is the solenoid valve. Design engineers working for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) face multiple options-and issues-when selecting these complex, highly engineered devices for their systems. Beyond the usual considerations of correct sizing and wattage, experienced designers are aware that many current models may exhibit worrisome performance problems, as well as difficulties relating to certifications, availability, ease of assembly, and support, among others. Fortunately, valve technologies are now available that avoid many or all of these problems, while providing significant benefits for OEM and end user alike. This report guides designers and specifiers in choosing the right valve to make a major positive impact on budgets, equipment life, and time to market.

Steam Valves

Seven Breakthrough Advantages of New Steam Valve Technology - Anne-Sophie Kedad-Chambareau and Gerry Longinetti - Solenoid based valves that control the flow of steam and hot water are critical components for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users of commercial and industrial laundry, sterilizer, boiler, dishwasher, and food preparation equipment. Until recently, specifiers and users of even the best traditional valve technology had to accept certain limitations. For instance, flow rates were relatively constrained, so throughput was restricted. Valve life was also comparatively short, and maintenance or replacement somewhat time-consuming. Recently, these barriers have been breached. New approaches and technologies, incorporated into a new generation of products, are changing what buyers can expect. Even differences in basic specifications can be considerable. In recent head-to-head testing of a popular traditional valve versus a new model, the new valve’s ambient temperature range was wider. Compared to some older designs, maximum temperature can be improved by 60° F and pressure can be more than doubled. The newest designs combine several features proven to offer significant benefits in traditional valves, such as threaded bonnets, a floating PTFE diaphragm, and a zero minimum operating differential design. They also add innovative new approaches such as optimized geometry, DC construction, and a lower power coil. For major performance factors, the improvements may be dramatic. This report demonstrates how choosing the right next-generation steam valve can deliver benefits such as 60% higher flow rates, four times longer life, and more.

Hot Water and Steam Service - An absolute "mine" of information about all things associated with steam.

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