Basics of Electricity

Electrical Engineer's pocket guide you have to register but it is worth the effort! Thanks to IDC Technologies.

Power Factor Correction & Energy Savings - Harmonics - a misunderstood phenomenon - Jean-Guy Boudrias & Jeff Barnnard - Harmonics in electrical distribution systems are created from a number of sources and produce  a variety of undesirable side effects, therefore it is important to understand all solutions that are available.  Phase shifting will be reviewed as one concept for solving certain types of problems related to power quality . Both theoretical concepts and a case study are presented - from United Wire & Cables.

The Differences between Watts and Volt Amps - Steve Mackay - I often...


Cables-IEEE 1242 Specifying and Selecting Cable for Petrochemical Plants a Guide - By Donald A Voltz and Joseph H Snow, this is a really excellent technical paper from Mustang Engineering.

Protection or Degradation - Separate the ‘quiet’ cables such as analog I/O lines, digital I/O lines, or LAN connections - Motors starting, stopping, switches on and off, controls blinking in and out … it is a cacophony of electrical clatter. In today’s industrial environments, electronic devices...

Circuit Protection

The 12 Most Common Mistakes of Specifying Circuit Protection for Equipment - From ETA Circuit Protection and Control.

The following excellent protection articles By GEORGE W. FARRELL and FRANK R. VALVODA, P.E have been issued by the folks at the Consulting Specifying Engineer website

The Art of Protecting Electrical Systems, Part 1: Introduction and Scope

The Art of Protecting Electrical Systems, Part 2: System Analysis

The Art of Protecting...


Electrical Earthing Systems - This excellent link from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia is an excellent reference on electrical earthing and grounding. It includes information on Low-voltage systems, IEC terminology, TN networks, TT network, IT network, Safety, Regulations, Application examples, Medium-voltage system, Solid-earthed neutral and Unearthed neutral.

Earthing in Low Voltage Systems - Covers Earthing connections, Definition of standardised earthing schemes...

Electrical Documentation

The Following Extremely Useful Documentation Tools are from

Electrical Relay Diagram and P&ID Symbols

Logic Symbols, Truth Tables and Equivalent Ladder/PLC Logic Diagrams

Programming and Documentation Pads (ALL)

These useful PLC listing pads allow you to implement better PLC design implementations and keep an orderly documentation system. Select a PDF with all listing and sample pads or individual listings with samples (below)


Electrical Lighting

How much does it cost you to change a light globe? - Do you want to dramatically reduce your lighting maintenance costs and reduce your risk hazards? Lighting maintenance is a necessity and often an expensive job in the industrial work place today. The costs involved are usually high due to the positioning of light fittings. This no longer needs to be the case. The installation of an In2 Light Hatch® will dramatically reduce the costs involved in changing light globes on...

Electrical Motors

Motors - Erik Mertens -The scope of this document is to introduce the basic principles of motors and its important characteristics as well as the possibilities to drive equipment. The motor driven equipment on a typical industrial site accounts for approximately two thirds of the electricity consumption. Therefore, any type of measure taken to improve the efficiency of a motor system consequently can offer major energy savings - From Laborelec and Leonardo Energy.


Electrical Safety

Jump to the Various Sections of this page: Electrical Safety | Arc Flash | Digital Substation | Evaluating Fire and Heat Damaged Electrical Equipment | IEC61850 Based Process Bus Protection Systems | Power Transformers | Transmission Power Transformers |


Electrical Safety

The Following papers are from the 2013 Electrical Arc Flash Conference and Electrical Safety & Power System Protection Forum - Thanks to IDC Technologies.

Electrical Workplace Safety - Seven...

Electrical Wiring

Electrical wiring - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ex-Web - Selection, Installation and Maintenance of Electrical equipment in Hazardous Areas + HA Classification

Just click on the logos to get to further information on the subjects

Motor Control Centres (MCCs)

Guidelines For Performing Infrared Inspections Of Motor Control Centers - Josh L. White - Understanding the thermal patterns of this equipment is critical to a successful inspection. Also correctly identifying the source of the anomaly can make recommendations more valuable. From

Specification for Motor Control Centers 600 Volts and Below - This specification covers low voltage motor control centers with combination starter units. From GE...

Programable Electronic Controller (PLC)

The following technical information is From Automation

What is a PLC?

Considerations for Choosing a PLC

Example Programs

A Condensed Guide to Automation Control System Specification, Design and Installation - T. Elavsky - Automation Direct

Connecting 3-wire sinking and sourcing devices to PLC input modules

Motion Control System Choices

Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminal Connections

The following is from Weidmüller Pty Ltd

Modular terminals are available with many different types of connection - The principles of some of these are detailed below;

Spring Connection

The Weidmüller tension clamp system functions in a similar way to the proven clamping yoke. Separation between the mechanical and electrical functions has also been maintained with the tension spring version. The tension clamp made of...

Surge and Lightning Protection

It will never happen to me? Don't you believe it ... Globally, some 2000 on-going thunderstorms cause about 100 lightning strikes to earth each second!!

Modern day industrial facilities contain large amounts of microprocessor based equipment from control computers to field sensors. High speed data is transferred around a site to allow business decisions to be made which affect productivity and efficiency. The real time data used for such...

Specification - Electrical and Instrumentation Enclosures

Typical Instrument and Electrical Enclosure Specification Index

The Following typical Index will assist in the preparation of a specification for an Instrument / Electrical Enclosure.



Regulatory Considerations




Cross References

General Requirements


Location Of Equipment


Service and Environmental Conditions

Control Panel Construction

Indoor Control Panels

Outdoor Instrument...

Uninterruptible Power Systems

The following Technical Information is from Falcon Electric Inc.

10.11 The True Cost of UPS and Batteries - A Tutorial - This is a brief discussion of the present day state of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) under 10kVA, the largest UPS market segment, and their battery technology. They make up the bulk of the UPS units installed worldwide for business, industrial, scientific, IT and home applications. Since the UPS market is very large the UPS business...

Variable Speed Drives

AC and DC Variable Speed Drives - Application Considerations - Knowing what controller/motor package to use in a given situation is just one of the subjects covered in this overview of AC and DC drive application considerations - From Reliance Electric.

Top tips for specifying VFDs - Joe Kimbrell - Variable frequency drives can reduce energy consumption, improve real-time control and lengthen motor life. Selecting the right one for your application requires asking the...

Wind Farm Turbines

Offshore Wind Farm Electrical Connection options - a paper by W.Grainger and N.Jenkins- Thanks to the offshore wind energy network.

Instrumentation and Initial Evaluation of the 2.5MW Bockstigen Off Shore Wind Farm - Thanks to the offshore wind energy network.

Other Offshore Wind Energy Network Articles

Integration of Large Wind Farms into UtilityGrids - (Part 1 - Modeling of DFIG) - ABB Inc.

Integration of Large Wind Farms into Utility Grids - (Part 2 - Performance...

Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminals

Jump to Subject:- Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminals Technical Data | Termination and Electrical Connection Tools | Other Electrical and Instrument Terminal Links


Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminals Technical Data

It is important that terminating and making off terminals is undertaken by fully competent electrical tradesmen. Quality crimping tools, terminals and accessories should be used.

Cable Termination Practices Simplified