Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminals
Electrical and Instrument Wiring Terminals Technical Data
It is important that terminating and making off terminals is undertaken by fully competent electrical tradesmen. Quality crimping tools, terminals and accessories should be used.
Cable Termination Practices Simplified - Proper cable termination practices are vital for the complete and accurate transfer of both analog and digital information signals. This useful article from EC&M covers this.
Cable Termination Techniques - There are a variety of termination methods for cable. The termination method utilized depends basically on the system installed, type of cable used and type of connector. Using the proper termination method allows for good mechanical and electrical integrity. No matter what type of termination you will be performing, the most important thing is to use the proper tools and materials for the type of termination. For example, a crimp using pliers will work, but using a crimp tool and the proper die designed for your type of cable and connector is better. Using the proper solder type and the right temperature for solder type connections will ensure a lasting connection. We will review four basic termination techniques. This is just to provide some general guidelines. The termination method may vary somewhat based on system requirements and connector manufacture design methods. From West Penn Wire.
Connector Termination/Basic Guidelines - There are a variety of termination methods for cables. The termination method utilized depends basically on the system installed, type of cable used, and type of connector. Using the proper termination method allows for good mechanical and electrical integrity. No matter what type of termination you will be performing, the most important thing to remember is to use the proper tools and materials for your type of termination. For example, a crimp using pliers will work, but using a crimp tool and the proper die designed for your type of cable and connector is better. Using the proper solder type and the right temperature for solder type connections will ensure a lasting connection. This paper will review some basic termination techniques and provides some general guidelines. The termination method may vary somewhat based on system requirements and connector manufacturer design methods. From West Penn Wire.
Basic Electrical Training Course - This excellent 14 page pdf from Deutsch Advanced Interconnect is focused on the technology around connectors. This article is not an attempt at a basic course in electronics - rather, it is a course that will help you understand the electrical requirements that pertain to connectors. It’s pretty basic stuff - we promise not to get much heavier than Ohm’s Law and a few buzzwords. You’ll also be introduced to wire and cable so you’ll have a better understanding about connector applications.
Corrosion Resistance of Electric Wire Terminals Used in Harsh Industrial Environments - Industry reports indicate that 50 to 60 percent of electrical downtime has been traced to open or intermittent connections.1 Harsh industrial environments increase the risk of corrosion and chemical attack on metals used in wire terminal connections, potentially affecting electrical reliability. Engineers designing industrial control products must apply sound judgment in material selection and wire clamp design along with rigorous test methods to ensure reliable long term performance under harsh field conditions. Accelerated corrosion testing is an important tool for use in product designs such as wire terminal systems. Test methods such as salt spray testing have traditionally been used to evaluate corrosion resistance but can seldom be correlated to actual field performance. Other methods using corrosive gas mixtures have been developed to better correlate with field conditions. This paper studies corrosion resistance of wire terminal connections made from a variety of materials and protective platings and coatings. Accelerated test methods using both salt spray and corrosive gas mixtures were applied. The results show that each base metal and protective coating has it's strengths and weaknesses. Steel with zinc-trivalent chromate protective coatings performed well but vary significantly depending on the thickness of zinc, type of chromate, and use of sealers. Nickel-plated brass performed well except in environments with high concentrations of ammonia. Stainless steel provided the best and most universal corrosion resistance. The information presented in this paper can be applied to make more knowledgeable product selection decisions that will help ensure long term reliability of electrical connections used in industrial control applications - From Rockwell.
A Systems Approach to Functional Terminal Block Design - Consider where signals are processed in measurement, conversion and regulation systems - Carsten Luckheide - Ideally, functional terminal blocks should be easy to use, provide secure connections and make it simple to bridge terminals, whether or not they are adjacent. By taking a systems approach to functional terminal block design, though, a single block can be adapted to different connection requirements - from plantservices.com.
Wire & Cable Termination Options - How to complete your electrical assembly - Whether it’s a Wire Harness or a Cable Assembly, find the best way to terminate the ends. This is a quick reference chart of common termination options to help decide which is best - from DSM&T.
Connection Tips - From the Friendship Sloop Society (Not industrial tips but pretty relevant anyway).
U Tube Videos
Proper Wiring Termination - Tips, Tools and Methods
The following Technical Data is from Weidmüller Pty Ltd:
- Connection Technologies for the World of Automation - In today’s tough markets, cost-cutting has long since ceased to be a sufficient means of remaining competitive. Developing ever more compact components has become a crucial factor for concepts to succeed. Weidmüller can help you to master this tricky task while developing and producing automation systems by supplying optimum solutions.
- Modular Terminals Technology - Please be patient with this download from Weidmüller (3.4 Meg), it gives full catalogue data on their terminal range and technical information on what terminals to use.
- Precisely Connecting Signals in Process Control Systems - Proper signal transmission is often an immense project, particularly in process plants: Several thousands of field signals need to be wired to the DCS (Distribution Control System). In doing so, the clear and simple connection of the wires, their shielding, the protection against lightning and surges, as well as the conversion of the signals must be implemented in a precise and efficient way. In response to these requirements, Weidmüller has designed a variety of precisely tailored solutions for connecting signals in process control systems.
- WMF the New Way of Marshalling - This video details a new way of Marshalling a Distributed Control System – It has considerable advantages over the traditional methods.
- Spring Connection - Wherever time is short, Weidmüller's Tension Clamp System is the best choice. It is rapidly wired up, easy to use and offers 100% vibration resistance.
- Solder Connection - Soldering guarantees a good electrical connection. Weidmüller offers a choice of Terminals to match this Connection Technology.
- Spring-Clip Connection - Weidmüller's patented Termipoint Connection System for use with pneumatic gun.
- Pressure Clamp Connection - Weidmüller's patented pressure Clamp Connection for large conductors is easy to use and low maintenance.
- Top Connection - One access direction for conductor and tool with Weidmüller's tried and tested Screw Type Connection. This connection method guarantees a high contact force and a gas-tight connection.
- Push In Terminals - Save Time with Fast Push In Technology New Extended Range of P-Series Terminals. The cornerstones of this concept is the "Push In" connection technology which enable a reduction in the terminal variants whilst providing incredible cost savings.
- Quick Selection Guide Modular Terminal Blocks - Need a terminal? Choose from the huge range detailed here.
U Tube Videos - There are a useful series of videos on U Tube giving examples of how to connect using Weidmüller terminal blocks and accessories.
Weidmüller FieldPower Solution - Animation of Weidmüller FieldPower Solution for Power Distribution along conveyor belts.
Weidmuller Connection Technology W series Clamping Yoke - This video details the mechanics of the clamping yoke – it is pretty “cool”.
Weidmuller Connection Technology Z series Tension Clamp - This video details the mechanics of the Tension Clamp.
Weidmuller Connection Technology P series Push In - This video details the mechanics of the Push in Technology.
Technical Appendix - Includes Connection systems, Definitions of the various types, Materials – Insulating materials, Materials – Metals, Standards, directives, terminology, General technical information, Electrical data, Installation instructions, ATEX Modular terminals for explosive conditions, ATEX directives, codes and cross-connection instructions.
The following links are from Entrelec;
- Screw Clamp - Technology remains the most popular in connection devices. The screw clamp is the most recognized and widely used connection technology.
- Spring - Technology is a fast growing standard in screw-less connection. Spring connection technology continues to grow in popularity in the industrial and commercial markets, including automotive and railway industries.
- IDC (Insulation Displacement Connection) - Technology - is the newest, fastest, and most innovative of screw-less connections. An insulation displacement connection (IDC) terminal block, and a tool that cuts, strips, and inserts the wire into the connector.
Termination and Electrical Connection Tools
The following Technical Data is from Weidmüller Pty Ltd:
- Cable Connection Tools and Accessories - Details on a range of these useful tools.
- Just the Right Tool for your Application - This informative brochure is sorted by application areas. That way you can quickly find the quality tool you are looking for. It also contains useful tool tips.
- Cutting Tools - A large number of cables and conductors in many different types and designs are used to connect electrical and electronic components. The cables and wires must be accurately prepared for the various types of connection. The quality of the cutting process is therefore of critical importance. Mechanical efficiency together with the special cutting pattern reduces the manual force required to a minimum.
- Stripping Tools - After a conductor has been cut it is then prepared for the next step or for crimping. For this purpose, a specific length of the conductor insulation has to be removed, while preventing damage to the conductor. The length of the conductor insulation to be removed depends on the terminal clamping point or the crimp to be processed. Professional stripping tools guarantee perfect results due to precise adjustment of the tool to the corresponding insulation and the conductor cross-section. Precision tools by Weidmüller guarantee that the user will always obtain consistent, reliable stripping results. “Stripping” means the cutting and removal of the insulation. The methods required to perform this task correctly are detailed in this download.
- Crimping Tools - After stripping, appropriate contacts or wire end ferrules can be crimped to the cable end. Crimping produces a reliable connection between conductor and contact, and has more or less completely replaced soldering. Crimping describes the production of a uniform, nondetachable connection between conductor and connecting element. This should be achieved exclusively by the use of a high-quality precision tool. The result is a safe, reliable connection in both electrical and mechanical terms.
- A Range of Other Useful Termination Tools and Accessories - Includes wire end ferrules, pliers, connectors of various types, ESD pliers, testers, automatic machines and much more.
U Tube Videos
Weidmuller CTI 6 Crimping Tool - This 'U Tube' video shows how to use the tool effectively.
Weidmuller PZ 3 Wire Crimping Tool - This video shows the correct use of this crimping tool for wire-end ferrules with or without plastic collars (AWG 24...16). The PZ 3 produces a square crimp.
Weidmuller PZ 6 Roto Wire Crimping Tool - This Video demonstrates the correct use of this professional crimping tool for wire-end ferrules with or without plastic collars (AWG 24...16). The PZ 6 Roto produces a trapezoidal crimp.
Weidmuller PZ 16 and PZ 50 Wire Crimping Tools - Video demonstrating the use of these professional tools for crimping wire-end ferrules with or without plastic collars. The PZ 16 and PZ 50 produce indent crimping.
Weidmuller CTN 25 D4 and HTN 21 AN Crimping Tools - Video demonstrating the use of these professional tools for crimping uninsulated cable lugs and connectors.
Weidmuller CTX CM 1.6 Crimping Tool - Video showing use of this professional tool for crimping turned contacts.
Weidmuller HTF RSV 16 Crimping Tool - This video demonstrates this professional tool for crimping RSV and DSTV-HD contacts.
Speciality Control Systems - Weidmuller Marking Tags - This video details a wide variety of marking options for your terminal block and rail assemblies. Unfortunately, understanding all of these options can be quite a challenge! It also highlights the most common terminal block marking solutions.
Technical Dictionary - This excellent 44 page document includes Certificates, Electrical data including clearance and creepage distances, and Current load curve. It also covers;
General Technical Data - including information about CE marking, EMV directives, Protection types, Converting AWG conductors to mm2, Gauge pin,
Materials - including Insulation materials, Metals, Current loading curves,
Terminals - including Regulations / definitions, Assembling terminal strips, Connecting terminals, Use of aluminium conductors, Definition of the various types, Ex terminals.
Tools - Cutting, Stripping, Crimping.
Hazardous Areas Technical Guide - This excellent 90 page technical guide from Weidmüller is a large pdf download at 7 Megs, however it is worth the wait!
Applications in the Oil and Gas Industry - This application bulletin illustrates the practical concepts and special features in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industries.
Other Electrical and Instrument Terminal Links
XB IEC Terminal Blocks - versatility, quality, and reliability - This brochure details the different designs utilised by the Eaton range of terminals.
Video - XB Terminal Blocks - Details the features of this range of terminal blocks - from Eaton.