CANopen - CANopen is a CAN-based higher layer protocol. It was developed as a standardized embedded network with highly flexible configuration capabilities. CANopen was designed for motion-oriented machine control networks, such as handling systems. By now it is used in many various fields, such as medical equipment, off-road vehicles, maritime electronics, public transportation, building automation, etc.
CAN-do Cable Solutions for Many Applications - Previously, automobiles utilized harnesses (many wires wrapped together) to directly wire individual devices, such as a brake pedal to the brake lights, creating a jumble of wires throughout the vehicle. Using as few as two wires, a CAN system connects the engine management ECU with other ECUs for controlling the transmission, airbags, antilock brakes, automatic windows and other electronic devices. Using a CAN system improves functionality, diagnostics and monitoring capabilities while providing greater reliability due to fewer needed wires and connections. Thanks to Northwire.
There are many subjects on this page, simply jump to where you wish to go by selecting the one that you are interested in: Foundation Fieldbus Basics | Justifying and Economics of Foundation Fieldbus | Foundation Fieldbus Design | Foundation Fieldbus Control in the Field | Foundation Fieldbus Parameter Search | Foundation Fieldbus High Speed Ethernet (HSE) | Lightning and Surge Protection of Foundation Fieldbus Systems | Foundation Fieldbus Registered Products | Foundation Fieldbus Compliant Hosts | Foundation Fieldbus for Remote Operations Management | Foundation Fieldbus in Safety Instrumented Systems | Foundation Fieldbus in Hazardous Areas | Foundation Fieldbus Frequently Asked Questions | Calibrating Foundation Fieldbus Transmitters | Foundation Fieldbus Installation | Foundation Fieldbus Commissioning and Diagnostics Tools | Foundation Fieldbus Tools | Foundation Fieldbus Segment Checkers | Foundation Fieldbus Application | Foundation fieldbus Videos | Foundation™ fieldbus Educational Links | Foundation Fieldbus Useful Websites | Fieldbus Technical Comparison Data and Tools for Various Buses | Electronic Device Description Language | Field Device Integration | Digital Signals | Field Device Tool (FDT) Technology | Other Fieldbuses | Alternative Fieldbus Approaches
Foundation technology is the world's leading digital protocol for process automation. It provides end users with the "Freedom to Choose" best-in-class, interoperable control products from their suppliers of choice, and the "Power to Integrate" control systems, subsystems and devices across the plant enterprise. The result is improved plant performance-and greater business results.
Foundation Fieldbus Basics
The following technical information is from Metso Automation:
Fieldbus Ready to bring Real Benefits? - Oliver Jenkins - To date, major promoters of Fieldbus technology have focused on capital investment savings, since this has enabled easy justification of Fieldbus use on greenfield projects. But the early adopters of Fieldbus technology have found that once the initial challenges are overcome, the real benefit is achieved in mill run time, improved production efficiency, rapid production demand changes, flexible control strategy management, information flow, control data integrity, troubleshooting and device performance.
The Time is Right to Consider Fieldbus - A field bus (of one type or another) can be found across the whole plant structure. From Ethernet, through industrial LAN to control networks and discrete devices, it can bring a broad range of generic advantages. Field buses can also bring significant benefits to manufacturing systems in process control.
Control Valve Experience with FF Technology - at major Chinese petrochemical plant CSPC, a joint venture between the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Shell, is one of the largest petrochemical projects launched in the world in recent years. When production started in Nanhai early in 2006, the project was the biggest installation utilizing Foundation Fieldbus (FF) technology in process control and field instrumentation. The main reason for FF technology to be selected for the CSPC Nanhai project was its ability to provide a proactive approach to instrument maintenance. This is due to the fact that FF allows much more data to be transferred between field instruments and the host system compared with HART technology, for example. FF devices transmit information about an instrument’s condition before it actually needs maintenance or, obviously, when an instrument has an actual problem, as well as providing detailed diagnostic information about the nature of the problem. CSPC’s petrochemical plant is an early and successful example of adaptation to a new technology. CSPC uses diagnostic information from the intelligent FF valve controllers daily.
The following technical information is from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Introduction to Fieldbus - This technical paper covers how fieldbus works, shows how to connect instruments, and explains why-in most cases-you can’t realistically connect all 32 instruments on a single fieldbus segment. It also discusses the differences between PROFIBUS and FOUNDATION fieldbus, FISCO vs. Entity intrinsically-safe fieldbus systems, installing redundant segments, and EDDL vs. FDT - Thanks to MooreHawke Fieldbus.
Your First Fieldbus Installation? - Mike O’Neill of MooreHawke Fieldbus-thanks to Control Engineering Europe.
Bridging the Intrinsically-Safe Fieldbus Disconnect - MooreHawke, a division of Moore Industries has released a new white paper highlighting the various methods of connecting fieldbus devices in hazardous areas without compromising safety. This paper presents an overview of different ways to safely implement PROFIBUS PA or FOUNDATION fieldbus H1™ networks in hazardous areas while maintaining cost control and the inherent advantages of fieldbus. It highlights different methods of designing and installing fieldbus in hazardous areas including Entity, FISCO and High-Powered Trunk with field barriers. Also explored is the High Power Intrinsically-Safe Trunk concept pioneered by MooreHawke. This method allows users to get up to 350mA of I.S. power into a hazardous area by utilizing a patented split-architecture design. Readers of the white paper will have a better understanding of the complexities of Intrinsically-Safe fieldbus designs along with the history of innovations that have led to the latest industry advances. The white paper also includes a full-page chart highlighting key data points and installation advantages unique to each method.
The following technical information is from Samson Controls:
Communications Networks - A comprehensive 32 page document.
Communication in the Field - Lots of information here.
Serial Data Transmission - 48 pages packed full of information.
Fieldbus Acronyms - (MS Excel file) - Thanks to Ian Verhappen and Industrial Automation Networks.
The Fieldbus Book - a Tutorial - This excellent 41 page tutorial from Yokogawa is well written and covers some material not mentioned by others elsewhere.
Building on the Foundation - Jonas Berge - Steady improvements and enhancements over the last decade together with an increasing knowledge base in the process industries have made it far easier to realize the promised benefits of Foundation fieldbus plant network technology - from Emerson Process Management.
Digital Buses for Digital Plants - Digital communications technology reduces wiring and improves end-to-end signal accuracy and integrity in modern digital plants. Digital technology enables new innovative and more powerful devices, wider measurement range, elimination of range mismatch, and access to more information. Overall, use of digital technology can reduce automation project costs by as much as 30 percent as well as providing a two percent operational improvement. This article explores considerations to be made in selection of bus technology for optimal digital plant architecture - from Emerson Process Management.
Justifying and Economics of Foundation Fieldbus
Economic Case for Using FOUNDATION Technology - Modern DCS systems are major distributed networks with multiple data paths, which, in the interests of security and the highest plant availability, are almost always duplicated and made redundant. This article describes how FOUNDATION fieldbus systems can now incorporate redundancy and fault-tolerance right down to the H1 field layer. The major impact is on project ROI and plant revenues, and only FOUNDATION technology can offer this level of security and benefit to the plant operator - From the Fieldbus Report and MooreHawke Fieldbus.
Prepare for Tomorrow's Digital Plant - Ubiquitous and Cheap Data will Transform how an Enterprise Operates - Ian Verhappen - Rethink Applications - As sensors become more rugged, reliable, smarter and smaller it becomes possible to embed them on the surface of vessels much like is being done today with skin thermocouples on boiler furnace tubes. In the near future, such sensors will be available to measure, e.g., pressure, strain and corrosion. There even will be miniature analysers. A wireless gateway installed through a nozzle in a vessel will eliminate the need for any wires or connections inside the vessel itself. A few years from now a reactor may boast IP-enabled sensors surface-mounted on its baffles. Pressure, temperature and other sensors, each about the size of a dime, will create a complete vessel profile. Their data will allow us to operate the reactor much closer to optimum conditions, resulting in higher yield at lower overall risk. In addition, we'll be able to detect hot spots, build-up, fluid mal-distribution, localised corrosion and much more - enabling much earlier identification of abnormal situations. The possibilities for integrated sensors will be limited only by our imagination. From Industrial Automation Networks and www.chemicalprocessing.com.
OpEx Data to Knowledge - and Profits - Ian Verhappen - There is more data generated by modern control systems in a day than was generated in a year just decades ago, yet the same control systems are unable to take full advantage of it. Data without relevant context has negative value and must be integrated with other data from higher level systems to be useful. This paper discusses how data integration across systems and organizations converts data into knowledge and knowledge leads to profits.
Fieldbus End User Adoption Trends Show Growing Acceptance - ARC Insight Report.
Physical Layer Diagnostics reduces Downtime - Phil Saward (MTL-UK) - Hand-held test tools have been used routinely on the world's major fieldbus installations to speed the installation process by diagnosing wiring errors prior to start-up. In response to enduser feedback, recent enhancements have delivered better features such as noise measurement in multiple frequency bands and the ability to store field measurements before downloading them in the maintenance shop. Now, with the advent of continuous, on-line monitoring of the fieldbus physical layer, diagnostic information can be integrated into the asset and alarm management environments of today's fieldbus control systems. The paper will describe how the use of Foundation fieldbus as the protocol for communicating diagnostic information delivers an open architecture that is independent of control system choice. The key benefits of physical layer diagnostics will be explained, such as the ability to detect deterioration of segment performance before it affects the process, and improved use of maintenance resources during commissioning, hand-over and long-term operation - from the FFEUC Australia.
Maintaining Functional Value in FF Systems - Craig Webb (Honeywell) - A component of the justification for the use of FOUNDATION Fieldbus (FF) field devices has been the capability of those devices to provide comprehensive diagnostics. Delivering a useful result from these diagnostics has proven to require a structured approach to information collection, management and access. Raw device diagnostics must be processed to translate them into focussed, usable data that can be aligned to predefined maintenance actions and understood response urgencies. There is also benefit from the coupling of off-device assessments with on-device diagnostics to support functionally oriented process equipment performance assessment. The application of FF field devices in minimally manned and unmanned plant increases the reliance on FF dependability and the performance of diagnostic assessment. Performance of the device function must be sustained and rare failure events must be recognised and acted on with appropriate urgency to prevent production impact. Managed appropriately, diagnostics can greatly assist in the timely detection of the need for planned intervention. An approach for the management of device diagnostics for a range of FF device types, including transmitters and valve positioners, is discussed. This approach is currently used in the oil and gas industry in on-shoreplants and off-shore processing facilities - from the FFEUC Australia.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Provides Automation Infrastructure for Operational Excellence - This ARC report highlights that End users are increasingly specifying automation products and services not based upon the level of technology they provide, but on the business value proposition. FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology should be looked at from the same point of view - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Fieldbus Diagnostics latest Advancements Optimise Plant Asset Management - Stephen Mitschke - Since May 2006, the Fieldbus Foundation has been collaborating with NAMUR an international process industry end-user association based in Germany, on fieldbus performance enhancements such as device diagnostics, which both parties identified as requiring further clarification and guidance for the user community. A key objective of this collaborative effort is to unify the integration of fieldbus self-monitoring data to ensure the availability of valuable device diagnostic information to process plant personnel. Advancements in field diagnostics support a structured approach to asset management, which simplifies operators’ tasks and increases their confidence in utilizing equipment diagnostics and asset software - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Reducing Lifecycle Costs with the Power of Fieldbus - How Yokogawa Turns Advanced Fieldbus Functions into Economic Return -FOUNDATION fieldbus offers some advanced functionality and features that suppliers can take advantage of to make things easier for end users across the plant lifecycle. In this paper, we look at some of the advanced functions of fieldbus from the design phase through the operational phase and show you how suppliers can use the FOUNDATION fieldbus specifications to create a truly powerful process automation solution for the end user.
Taking Diagnostics to the Next Level - The FOUNDATION fieldbus specification was created from the ground up to allow suppliers to add their own competitive advantage to the technology. At the same time, we provide a standard infrastructure for your process automation requirements. Endress+Hauser is one supplier that has used the Foundation’s new FF-912 Diagnostics specification to address a wide range of diagnostic data from field devices, from the process to the sensing element to the device electronics. The world of device diagnostics is about to expand exponentially.
The following links are from Emerson Process Management:
Fieldbus Justification Goes Beyond Total Cost of Ownership - Larry O'Brien - Fieldbus, as a digital replacement for 4-20 mA analog communications, is a simple concept, but it is significantly changing the way that users look at their processes and is providing a flood of information from the field about both the devices and their associated processes. Users should approach the process of choosing, implementing and using fieldbus in a way that will achieve successful and superior performance, reduced costs and operational excellence in the context of the enterprise’s business.
The "Smart Refinery" - “Smart” technologies have been around the refining industry for a couple of decades. In fact, process automation, control and monitoring technologies get smarter every year. But are they actually improving your business? Are they helping you address the impending workforce crisis we are all facing? Are they helping provide you with the flexibility to change your production strategies to deal with varying crude states? Are they giving you the confidence to run your refinery at your rated capacities while ensuring safe operating conditions, which are non-negotiable? Emerson Process Management have combined their experience with leading refiners with the knowledge and perspective of their leading technology and applications specialists to stimulate insights and ideas for bringing predictability into your operation. These are not blue-sky ideas. They are down-to-earth and practical, yet advanced ideas for harnessing the power of technology to enable your staff to be their most effective and efficient. We call it the “Smart Refinery.” This brief guide aspires to provide insight into how you can harness these new technologies to gain value from improving your plant’s operation.
Improving Quality with Digital Plant Architecture - The major source of quality problems in plants, mills, and refineries is process variability. PlantWeb digital plant architecture’s predictive intelligence helps you detect and correct potential problems before they can increase variability. As a result, you can keep instruments and other equipment performing at their best, improve control, and sustain the resulting gains - so you can reduce variability and shift setpoints for higher-quality output.
Justifying Fieldbus - This slideshow covers the benefits of fieldbus including Fieldbus Savings from Physical Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance. It also includes Multisensor Transmitters, Reduced CAPEX , Engineering and Installation costs, Maintenance Benefits, Ease of Troubleshooting, Increased Plant Availability along with examples. It is a super resource for an engineer looking to justify a fieldbus project to their Management.
Business Case For Use of Foundation Fieldbus - Amit Ajmeri, Ferrill Ford, & Sudhir Jain - Testimonials are out there talking about significant savings users have when they use FF technology for their project, but each and every case is different and savings are claimed under the project specific environment. Preparing a business case and doing an economical analysis between conventional and FF systems assists in identifying potential savings. Savings will fall under two categories. CAPEX reducing project engineering cost and OPEX reducing operations and maintenance cost.
Fieldbus Fosters Innovations - Boosting performance in the process plant are several new innovations -triggered by the digital spark of fieldbus. Jonas Berge reports.
Foundation Fieldbus Design
Application Guides available from the Fieldbus Foundation - Foundation Technical Guides were developed to provide an in-depth analysis of key fieldbus technical issues: wiring & installation, Function Block implementation, system engineering, and more. The technical guides are a valuable resource assisting control industry professionals in their usage of Foundation technology.
The following technical information is from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Advances in Fieldbus - Mike O’Neill of MooreHawke Fieldbus details of some of the awkward issues that fieldbus users might have to face including hazardous area choices, integrating devices into systems from different manufacturers, redundancy and fault-tolerance.
A Truly Redundant Wiring Solution for Foundation Fieldbus Segments - Mike O’Neill - A restricting factor in the uptake of FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology is that the physical layer used does not naturally allow for redundancy. Power supplies and interface packages can provide redundant connections to higher level networks, but all device communications within individual segments are absolutely dependent upon the performance and integrity of a single twisted-pair cable. This paper introduces a completely new and secure solution for fieldbus segment cabling which, when used in conjunction with redundant DCS system interfaces and redundant segment power supplies, is the final piece necessary to overcome objections to the reliability and vulnerability of fieldbus systems.
Redundant FF-H1 Segment Wiring - Mike O'Neill (MooreHawke) - from the FFEUC Australia.
NB: These files are in MS Powerpoint format. Files are compressed using WinZip. Please note some of these files are quite large, and may take a few minutes to download.
This emerging multidrop technology has been in development for many years and is finally gaining the recognition that it deserves. It provides many CAPEX and OPEX advantages including Control in the field, advanced diagnostics and predictive maintenance.
Field Device Networking: Extending Interoperability Beyond Devices - Larry O’Brien - Testing field devices may not be enough. Most interoperability problems happen when a device tries to communicate with a host system, but that can be addressed. As a company that is responsible for developing and maintaining communication protocols that are used by a large number of equipment manufacturers and end users, interoperability is one of our greatest concerns. Interoperability in this context is the idea that equipment from a variety of manufacturers can function in the same system without having to be coaxed or forced in the form of reconfiguration or other changes. A pressure sensor from company A should function on the same fieldbus segment as another unit from company D. To facilitate that objective, our organization, like other standards bodies, specifies how this communication takes place - from Control Engineering and the Fieldbus Foundation.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Project Implementation Considerations - John Yingst, Sr. Product Manager Honeywell Automation & Control Solutions.
Laying the Foundation-Building Fieldbus Systems that Deliver Benefits - Gregory R Belcher (BE Hons) Systems Consultant, Honeywell Ltd. Australia.
Fieldbus Wiring Design and Installation Guide PDF - This updated document which now includes earthing and grounding recommendations provides a readable overview of the Fieldbus physical layer and is a great place to get started with Foundation Fieldbus wiring and installation - from Relcom.
High System Availability for Foundation Fieldbus PDF - This application note focuses on the requirement for high availability of the physical layer components such as Power Supplies -from Relcom.
The importance of Isolation for Foundation Fieldbus - Maintaining Isolation between the fieldbus pair and plant ground is critical for the reliability of a Foundation fieldbus application, this application note addresses this - from Relcom.
FF Technology on the Ravensthorpe Project - Dirk Pieterse (RJV) - Fieldbus technologies have been implemented on the processing plant as follows;
- FOUNDATION Fieldbus was implemented for Instruments and Valves including a significant number of digital signals;
- Profibus DP for Drives; and
- Modbus RTU for non critical serial data communications.
Key implementation objectives were to make effective use of fieldbus information in operating and maintenance strategies. This required integration of various systems and work practices. A consistent implementation philosophy was followed with respect to fieldbus implementation criteria, standardised devices and device revisions. The Lump Sum Turnkey Contractors (LSTKs) and package suppliers adhered to the project objectives with respect to devices, device revisions and implementation methodology. This paper covers a brief overview of the process, fieldbus implementation, design criteria, engineering and diagnostic tools utilised, installation, commissioning and lessons leant - what to do different on the next major fieldbus Project - from the FFEUC Australia.
Digital Fieldbus for Mineral Processing - Manoj Pandya (Alcan) - This paper discusses the implementation of digital communication technology for process control equipment from concept to commissioning. The primary focus of the paper is a technology plan developed by Alcan Engineering Pty Limited (ALCENG). The topics covered include migration to new technology and associated risk management, engineering design process and commissioning, as well as the benefits gained and “tips and traps” for a successful project implementation - Thanks to the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and the FFEUC Australia.
Alumina Refinery FF Project (Alunorte) - Luiz Carlos Simões, Ivo Cilento, Glaubério Pereira Junior and William Soares Vidal - Alunorte Alumina in partnership with ABB , adopted extensive use of Foundation Fieldbus (FF). as part of a major expansion to their refinery by adding two new production lines. Alunorte chose fieldbus technology because it provided superior integration of Control Systems and Field Instrumentation and greater flexibility for future implementation of asset management tools and process optimisation regimes. In a corporative effort, ABB, Alunorte and third party suppliers integrated 35 different field devices, from 11 manufacturers, to the Distributed Control System (HOST). This approach lowered the commission efforts and contributed to the successful expansion of the plant that makes Alunorte produce 4.2 Millions Ton/ year of Alumina - from the FFEUC Australia.
Specification & Implementing a FF Project - Phil Eastwood (Worley) - This presentation is based on our experience on implementing a Foundation Fieldbus based control system on an offshore “Not Normally Manned” gas platform in the North West Shelf of Australia, from the detailed design phase of the project through to fabrication site commissioning. The project has been conducted based on the client’s project philosophy of developing a set of FF standards for specification of field devices, host and integration of data to the upstream asset management system which may be universally applied to future projects. The following key subject areas were covered; System Architecture and Control Philosophy, Segment Risk Management, Host PCS Fieldbus Requirements, Field Device Selection and Configuration Requirements, FISCO Specification and Certification, 3rd Party Vendor Supplied Equipment, FF Documentation Requirements, Factory Inspection and Testing Requirements, Installation and Site Integration Requirements and Asset Management Integration - from the FFEUC Australia.
Selecting the Right Cable for FOUNDATION fieldbus Control Networks - What you need to Know - Sandy Fulton - FF-844 is the new Fieldbus Foundation cable compliance specification. FF-844 includes the electrical requirements of ISA 50.02 and IEC 61158, but it also contains some additional requirements which help you know your cable is the right cable for use in FOUNDATION fieldbus control networks - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
The Integration of Fieldbus Devices to an Existing DCS - A NASA paper - Debashis Sadhukhan and Craig M. Dunn - Existing analog strain gauge transducers and signal conditioners were replaced with new Foundation™ Fieldbus Transmitters in the Distributed Control System, DCS, at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The reasons for implementing this upgrade and an evaluation of the results of the project are the subjects of this paper. Problems and advantages with the original transducers and the newly installed transmitters are described and compared. Detail of the physical network layer between the Foundation™ Fieldbus Transmitters, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Multipurpose Micro-Processor (MMPs) and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complex nature of the facility and methods of future control of the associated processes are also discussed.
Evaluating A Foundation Fieldbus System - 20 questions and answers These questions and answers were compiled based on Smar's 6-year experience of working with Fieldbus systems. They are intended to be used as a guide to help evaluate a true Foundation Fieldbus system, so it can be selected wisely and safely. From Smar Implementing Fieldbus Technology - Thorsten Krohn - This paper describes the fieldbus technology decision, the objectives for using fieldbus technology and the implementation strategy employed to realise the objectives.
Do You Design Fieldbus Networks? This Software Tool from Pepperl+Fuchs Helps You To:
- Check operational parameters to validate fieldbus segment architecture
- Evaluate potential problems with a fieldbus segment configuration
- Design your FOUNDATION® fieldbus H1 and PROFIBUS PA networks
- Display, archive and print your entire design
- Import field devices from a library or create new ones with the device editor
Foundation Fieldbus Control in the Field
Video - Understanding the Use Case for Control in the Field - Control in the field vs. control in the host: Foundation fieldbus technology allows for both, so how do you choose? A new study offers suggestions. If you are a Foundation fieldbus user, you know that it supports control in the field (CIF), which allows a sensor and actuator to form its own self-regulating PID loop, independent of the host control system. While the effectiveness of the approach is well documented, what user cases make it the most compelling for application? A new study has been completed by Industrial Systems and Control, an engineering consulting group in Glasgow, Scotland, that examines how CIF operates and where it is likely to offer the greatest advantages over traditional host-based process control. In the video Dr. Andy Clegg explains the parameters of the study, and the basic findings. His report discusses how his team carried out the independent evaluation, and the circumstances under which the high determinism of CIF can outperform conventional loops driven by a PLC or DCS - from Control Engineering.
ARC Advisory Group: Control In The Field Enhances Process Integrity - In the white paper, titled "The Business Value Proposition of Control in the Field," ARC describes the incorporation of a function block structure and other supporting functions in Foundation fieldbus providing a complete automation infrastructure for operational excellence. Embedded control functionality in Foundation devices is one of the key enablers for achieving high availability control and a stepping-stone towards single-loop integrity - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Fieldbus Enables Single-loop Integrity with "Control in the Field" - Single-loop integrity is the "good engineering practice" of designing process control loops (or control strategies) in such a way that if any element (e.g., transmitter, wire, power supply, controller, control valve, etc.) fails, there is minimal impact on production. Prior to the introduction of DCSs and PLCs single-loop integrity was a widely used good engineering practice in process plants around the globe and some end-users on the ISA SP50 digital fieldbus committee felt strongly about it. The vision of those forward-thinking committee members is now achievable using FOUNDATION fieldbus (FF) function blocks to implement control-in-the-field (CIF). - H. BU YU, SINOPEC Engineering Inc., China, and M. PELUSO, Emerson Process Management.
Foundation Fieldbus Parameter Search
Foundation Fieldbus Parameter Search (ßeta) - "Taking the Frustration out of Foundation" - As a systems engineer working primarily with Foundation Fieldbus devices, it was evident that there was a lack of information available describing the numerous parameters and functionality. ffsearch.org is a solution to this. Starting out as a repository for all parameters, ffsearch enables the searching of any parameter displaying manufacture provided information.
Foundation Fieldbus High Speed Ethernet (HSE)
HSE's Future - Linking the CEO to the Field - Thanks to Ian Verhappen and Industrial Automation Networks.
HSE: An Open High-Speed Solution for Plantwide Automation - Dave Glanzer - Fieldbus Foundation - The Fieldbus Foundation's High Speed Ethernet (HSE) technology provides a cost effective, high-speed, plantwide backbone for process and discrete automation. HSE enables users to solve a wide range of hybrid, batch and time-critical discrete control applications. HSE supports the entire scope of the FOUNDATION fieldbus technology, including standard function blocks and device descriptions, and takes full advantage of the low cost and ready availability of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Ethernet components. HSE complements, rather than replaces, the Fieldbus Foundation’s H1 (31.25 kbit/s) fieldbus, and thus meets the worldwide market demand for a unified control network solution. It integrates H1 for distributed process control applications with a high-speed (100 Mbit/s) technology for advanced hybrid, batch and manufacturing applications, and provides for information integration with plant management systems.
Lightning and Surge Protection of Foundation Fieldbus Systems
Lightning and Surge Protection for Fieldbus Systems - This publication contains a brief introduction to fieldbus systems. It continues by describing the surge protection necessary to protect such systems from the detrimental effects of lightning and other surges - From MTL Instruments.
Surge Protection as part of OpEx - Chris Ground - From MTL Instruments.
Foundation Fieldbus Registered Products
Registered Products - Searching for registered Foundation products? Look no further-the Fieldbus Foundation's registered product catalog lists all of the H1 and HSE devices carrying the official Foundation checkmark. It's all you need to identify products by manufacturer and device type, and view parameters such as function blocks, Device Descriptions, etc.
Foundation Fieldbus Compliant Hosts
Compliant Hosts - The Fieldbus Foundation conducts a comprehensive test program to verify the Foundation technology features supported by suppliers' compliant host systems. We provide a complete list of tested hosts available to meet your digital control system requirements.
Foundation Fieldbus for Remote Operations Management
FOUNDATION for Remote Operations Management - One of the fastest growing segments in the world of process automation is remote operations management. As the name implies, remote operations refers to the management of automation assets that are located in or are dispersed throughout remote geographic locations where it is difficult or impossible to send personnel. This is not limited to remote offshore oil platforms and oil and gas pipelines. It can also include tank farms and terminals, water and wastewater treatment facilities, and any industry or application that requires remote access to automation assets.
Video - The Unveiling of FOUNDATION for Remote Operations Management - The Fieldbus Foundation has unveiled its Foundation for Remote Operations Management (ROM) solution, a new technology initiative intended to develop a unified digital infrastructure for asset management in remote applications such as tank farms, terminals, pipelines, offshore platforms, and even OEM equipment skids. The technology enables fieldbus connectivity to remote I/O and the leading industrial wireless protocols, including WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a. It provides an interface to these wireless technologies and uses Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) and function blocks to ensure interoperability with Foundation for ROM devices - from Control Engineering.
Foundation Fieldbus in Safety Instrumented Systems
Planning & Implementating FF-SIS - Gordon Stevenson (Bechtel) - This paper discusses the planning and implementation of FF-SIS within the process industry. How to realise the benefits of FF and its impact on the specification, design, validation, verification and maintenance of an SIS are addressed. The risks associated with FF-SIS are examined and practical risk reduction/mitigation steps proposed - from the FFEUC Australia.
Foundation Fieldbus in Hazardous Areas
The following technical information is from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Implementing Foundation Fieldbus H1 networks in Hazardous Areas - The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into the process of safely implementing Foundation Fieldbus in a classified area - Mike O’Neill of MooreHawke Fieldbus.
Achieving Redundant Intrinsically-Safe Fieldbus Segments for Fisco & Entity Devices - Mike O’Neill - During the last year or so, a variety of approaches have been released offering users new fieldbus segments with redundancy and FISCO device connectivity. This paper describes and compares those new designs with regard to segment capacity, MTBF, overall availability, installation areas and implementation cost.
Installing Fieldbus in Hazardous Locations - Harry Wilson - This article covers the North American aspects.
DART Fieldbus: Intrinsic Safety Now Available without Power Limits - The New DART System from Pepperl+Fuchs enables process users to take full advantage of the benefits of fieldbus technology in intrinsic safety environments . Pepperl+Fuchs have introduced the Dynamic Arc Recognition and Termination (DART) technology for use in the popular FieldConnex Fieldbus Infrastructure. DART Technology is a dynamic system that provides dramatically higher power levels while maintaining intrinsically safe energy levels - from Pepperl+Fuchs.
Fieldbus Non-Incendive Concept (FNICO) - Phil Saward - from MTL Instruments.
FISCO Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus Systems - This application note is a practical guide to the selection, installation and maintenance of equipment complying with the Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept (FISCO). The document begins with a discussion of the origins of FISCO and an introduction to the main elements that should be considered when assembling FISCO systems. Later sections then develop each subject in more detail, with the intention of providing clear guidance to new and experienced Fieldbus users - From MTL Instruments.
The Application of Intrinsic Safety to Fieldbus Systems - Chris Towle Chairman: MTL Instruments Ltd - This excellent paper covers the technical aspects of FISCO, FNICO, Exe and Exi combination, Maintenance and Inspection along with Intrinsically Safe Ethernet - Presentation from the IDC Technologies "Hazardous Areas: Classifications and Equipment Conference 2007"- from MTL Instruments.
FISCO - Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus Systems - A practical guide to the selection, installation and maintenance of equipment complying with the Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe COncept (FISCO) for fieldbus systems in Zone 2 and Division 2 hazardous areas. The document begins with a discussion of the origins of FISCO and follows with a review of the main elements to be considered when assembling FISCO systems. Further sections develop each subject in more detail. The intention is to provide clear guidance to new and experienced fieldbus users.
FISCO, FNICO plug in, users, approvers tout the advantages of duel fieldbus safety concepts - Ellen Fussell ISA - It's a fieldbus approach versus a standard analog approach. It reduces users' barriers from entering into the fieldbus world. It reduces installation costs, hardware, and wire. Sound familiar? The fieldbus intrinsically safe concept (FISCO) has been on the tongues of fieldbus users in hazardous locations for some time. But lately, more users are turning to FISCO as well as the fieldbus nonincendive concept (FNICO), which allow them to plug more devices into their network in a safe way and save money at the same time.
FNICO - Non-Incendive Fieldbus Systems - A practical guide to the selection, installation and maintenance of equipment complying with the Fieldbus Non-Incendive COncept (FNICO) for fieldbus systems in Zone 2 and Division 2 hazardous areas. The document begins with a discussion of the origins of FNICO and follows with a review of the main elements to be considered when assembling FNICO systems. Further sections develop each subject in more detail. The intention is to provide clear guidance to new and experienced fieldbus users.
Non-Incendive Fieldbus for Simplified Maintenance is a paper that discusses the benefits of High Powered Trunk and Energy Limited Spurs for a Class I Division 2 or Zone 2 installation of Fieldbus systems - from Relcom.
Foundation Fieldbus Frequently Asked Questions
Fieldbus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - Common questions regarding Foundation Fieldbus wiring, power, and installation answered here - from Relcom.
Calibrating Foundation Fieldbus Transmitters
Calibrating Fieldbus Transmitters - Fieldbus is becoming more and more common in today’s instrumentation. But what is fieldbus and how does it differ from conventional instrumentation? Fieldbus transmitters must be calibrated as well, but how can it be done? Until now, no practical solutions have existed for calibrating fieldbus transmitters.
Foundation Fieldbus Installation
The following technical information is from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Installing Fieldbus in Real-Life Applications - Many automation engineers are coming face-to-face with real fieldbus applications for the first time. Fieldbus is a wonderful technology with many benefits, but fieldbus installation requires some additional considerations over and above normal 4-20mA projects. In this in-depth white paper, we discuss some of those issues, and show you how to deal with them.
Fieldbus Installation - Short-Circuiting Fieldbus Installation Problems - Tim Wilson and Jeff Marsh - Like other process industry operations, bio-fuel production plants seek state-of-the-art automation technology in order to reduce raw material costs, increase yields, comply with regulatory standards and maximize revenues. However, plant managers must ensure control systems provide reliable operation and a low cost of ownership over the life of installed assets. Although modern, fieldbus-based process control systems offer many operational benefits, ethanol producers need effective measures to protect the fieldbus physical layer against short circuits, improper termination and other problems that can adversely affect system performance and reliability. They also need solutions enabling a quick ramp-up from installation to operation of the control system in order to improve their time to market - from Control Global.
Methods for Planning, Installation, Commissioning and Diagnosis of Fieldbus Installations - Andreas Hennecke, Sven Seintsch and Thomas Kasten - This paper describes working practice for all phases of the project: planning, commissioning, plant start-up, operation and online troubleshooting of fieldbus systems. Strategies are described that enable users to maximize the benefits of fieldbus technology. Thanks to Pepperl and Fuchs.
Foundation Fieldbus Commissioning and Diagnostics Tools
FF Commissioning Practices - Ian Verhappen - The digital communications capability of Fieldbus networks and their associated “plug and play” feature enable changes to be made to the traditional way in which field device commissioning is performed. This paper discusses how these differences can be used to reduce the field commissioning time on a typical project - Thanks to Ian Verhappen and Industrial Automation Networks.
Fieldbus: Commissioning with Advanced Diagnostic Tools - Modern day fieldbus diagnostic tools - such as the Advanced Diagnostic Module for the FieldConnex® Power Hub - bring transparency to the fieldbus physical layer and communication. The module performs measurements such as supply voltage, load current, signal level, line noise or jitter. The module listens to the communication and distinguishes between segment and device information. Clear and concise displays within the Diagnostic Manager show readouts to the user - this brings transparency to a plant condition that seems ambiguous - from Pepperl+Fuchs.
Monitoring the Fieldbus Physical Layer - Commissioning the fieldbus with advanced diagnostic tools - What was unthinkable for point-to-point wiring, is affordable for the fieldbus: the new Advanced Diagnostic Module from Pepperl+Fuchs offers the measurement and monitoring of the physical fieldbus structure from the control station. Designed as a plug-in card for the modular power supply system Power Hub, the module gathers all the measurements of the fieldbus physical layer for all fieldbus segments and combines them at a single maintenance workstation online and in realtime. The fieldbus diagnosis provides transparency, and the measurability of the actually transferred signals gives installers and operators of process systems a more complete picture of the behavior of the fieldbus. This allows for otherwise often inexplicable behavior to be analyzed with precision. You can also measure and verify the reserve power available on the fieldbus - from Pepperl+Fuchs.
Advanced Diagnostics Self Validates Health of Fieldbus Networks - Wil Chin and Allen Avery - Diagnostic capabilities for Fieldbus networks have evolved significantly over the years. Rudimentary tests such as instrument elevated zero outputs and simple I/O health checks gave way to superior instrument and process diagnostics with the introduction of HART, which had its limitations due to bandwidth restrictions. The advent and acceptance of Fieldbus has in-creased the use of sophisticated sensor technology and process diagnostics. Until recently, it was cost prohibitive to monitor the health of the entire Fieldbus network. However, that has changed with the introduction of more sophisticated Fieldbus hardware and advanced diagnostic systems - from Pepperl+Fuchs.
Troubleshooting Guide describes common fieldbus physical layer problems and how to find them - from Relcom.
Preventing Fieldbus Physical Layer Problems application note provides suggestions to help minimize problems with the fieldbus physical layer - from Relcom.
Foundation Fieldbus Tools
The FBT-6 Fieldbus Monitor is a hand held device that allows field personnel to perform a variety of physical layer tests to troubleshoot and commission fieldbus segments. The FBT-6 builds on the FBT-3 fieldbus tester that is established as the standard for fieldbus H1 test equipment.
Having Trouble with your Fieldbus installation? Troubleshoot with Relcom Tools that are available? Designed specifically for Fieldbus, Relcom offer three hand-held testers for network monitoring, validating field wiring, and probing for bus power and Fieldbus signals.
The Testing Fieldbus Wiring with an FBT-6 and FBT-5 application note provides information about using these two instruments together to test fieldbus wiring - from Relcom.
Portable Tools Can Make Fieldbus Easier - Most people think of fieldbus as digital integration of field devices with process automation systems and that working with Fieldbus can only be accomplished with fixed assets (such as PCs) located in fixed locations, but there are also a number of portable tools available that can make specific fieldbus tasks a lot easier and help you get a better return on your fieldbus investment. There are some very good reasons for using portable tools and a wide range of products available with different functions and price levels. Here are some of the more compelling reasons to use portable tools, the different classes of tools, and some things the Fieldbus Foundation is doing to ensure that the products you purchase match their specifications.
Foundation Fieldbus Segment Checkers
Fieldbus Segment Calculator - This tool models the behaviour of MTL’s 9370-FB Series Fieldbus Barriers, and provides a rapid “Go/No-Go” indication of the electrical characteristics of the fieldbus network. All the relevant parameters of the fieldbus segment are easily configurable, including field device currents, cable lengths, cable cross-section and number of fieldbus spurs. Power supply and host control system types are easily selectable from pull-down menus, or can be user-defined.
MTL Segment Calculator - The MTL segment calculator is a spreadsheet-based tool designed to assist network and planning engineers when designing and implementing FOUNDATION fieldbus ™ H1 networks. Specific data covering MTL fieldbus power supplies, including the latest Redundant FISCO units, wiring hubs and third-party field devices are pre-programmed although users can input their own device parameters. Calculations using surge protection devices are also accommodated.
Emerson Process Management Segment Design Tool for Physical and Electrical Design Verification - The Segment Design Tool is a Windows 2000/XP/Vista compatible program designed to provide a general guide for reducing the time required to engineer a FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 segment of DeltaV systems, Ovation systems and 3420 Fieldbus Interface Modules. The Segment Design Tool checks the segment layout utilizing the FOUNDATION Fieldbus rules governing cable lengths, power consumption and proper segment termination. This tool now supports a variety of Intrinsically Safe concepts, including Entity, FISCO FNICO and High Power Trunk (HPT). Given that the tool results are based on ideal components, power and layout specification, the tool results only provide a general indication as to the expected performance of the segment; therefore; the PlantWeb Architecture components specifications and installation instructions will always take precedence.
Foundation Fieldbus Application
Fieldbus Solution Helps Conoco Create Innovative Plant - A Greenfield Carbon Fiber Facility Expands Data Access with a Foundation Fieldbus-Based Control System. By A. Thomas O'Grady - from Honeywell.
A Nuclear Perspective on Foundation Fieldbus Application - This presentation covers the selection and reasons behind this Foundation Fieldbus solution in the Duke Energy plant - Michael H. Miller - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Foundation fieldbus has improved Safety and Availability of Chemical Additives Plant for over 10 years - This article describes how FOUNDATION fieldbus based control system was used to automate a chemical additives plant operated by Wuhan Youji Industries Co., Ltd. in the People's Republic of China. The process involves the production of sodium benzoate, a food and beverage preservative, from toluene or methylbenzene. In particular, the article discusses how a new, FOUNDATION fieldbus-based control system met the need for improved safety and fault tolerance at the plant, and provided a solution for increased availability and reduced losses of raw materials and finished products - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
The World’s Largest Installation of Foundation Fieldbus at China’s Largest Petrochemical Complex - Mike Spear - Across the 10 plants and utilities there are over 48 000 control loops, with about 166 000 I/O tags and around 25 000 points hardwired to the automation system. There are 40 000 instruments and some 13 000 intelligent devices networked in the world’s largest Foundation Fieldbus installation. In total there are 2500 FF segments. Adrian Howell, SECCO’s process control manager, says that ‘while we knew that a fieldbus approach would save considerable amounts of cabling, a conservative approach was taken to the number of devices connected on each segment. Designs were limited to no more than 12 devices, and the average ended up as five devices per segment, where each segment varies between two to 11 devices - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Power Plant sees Green with New Digital Bus System - John Blaney, Jim Murray, and Gary Tingley - Chasing advantages in design and construction savings, the utility wanted to incorporate digital bus technology in as many areas as possible. Both Foundation fieldbus and PROFIBUS are used significantly throughout the balance of plant systems. Another reason behind the decision was simply the opportunity to try new technology on a new plant since the technology has been proven in many other industries, just not in the power industry - From the ISA and InTech.
Foundation Technology: End User Perspective on Automation Infrastructure for Operational Excellence - Phil Stoor -Brunner Mond (UK), a major producer of sodium carbonate (soda ash) for the European market, decided to replace the outdated control system at its Northwich East plant in Cheshire, England, with the latest process automation technology. Brunner Mond sought a modern control system that would improve its operational efficiency, reduce plant maintenance costs, increase safety, and minimize unplanned shutdowns due to equipment failure. After considering various competitive approaches, Brunner Mond installed a FOUNDATION™ digital automation infrastructure. During the first phase of the DCS replacement, fieldbus technology was employed on two Solvay towers used to carbonate ammoniated brine to form sodium bicarbonate crystals. This project proved to be successful, and set the stage for implementation of additional fieldbus controls on Brunner Mond’s Northwich production operation.
Intelligence Moves Plant from Preventive to Predictive Maintenance - Laura Thomas, Jay Kalinowski, Curtis Cook and Lou Verduzco - Applying fieldbus technology to a water treatment plant requires a shift from traditional instrumentation and electrical design methods. OCWD made the decision to preselect a DCS, develop software and hardware standards, and have all systems developed using those standards. Before preselecting a DCS, OCWD decided to use Foundation fieldbus for instrumentation and DeviceNet for motor control centers and variable frequency drives. Classic I/O would serve as necessary. After a preselection process, OCWD selected Emerson Process Management's DeltaV system.- thanks to InTech.
FOUNDATION™ Technology:Automation Infrastructure for Operational Excellence - Phil Stoor -Senior Project Manager -Brunner Mond - After considering various competitive approaches, Brunner Mond installed a FOUNDATION™ digital automation infrastructure. During the first phase of the DCS replacement, fieldbus technology was employed on two Solvay towers used to carbonate ammoniated brine to form sodium bicarbonate crystals. This project proved to be successful, and set the stage for implementation of additional fieldbus controls on Brunner Mond’s Northwich production operation - from Emerson Process Management.
Fast Track Conversion Transforms Supertanker into an Intelligent FPSO - This article describes the conversion of the world's largest FPSO which utilised fieldbus technology to create an "intelligent" vessel - from Emerson Process Management.
Five Critical Factors for Selecting Fieldbus Valve Manifolds - Enrico De Carolis - In today’s highly automated machines, fieldbus valve manifolds are replacing conventional hardwired solutions. They more easily perform vital functions by integrating communication interfaces to pneumatic valve manifolds with input/output (I/O) capabilities. This allows programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to more efficiently turn valves on and off and to channel I/O data from sensors, lights, relays, individual valves, or other I/O devices via various industrial networks. The resulting integrated control packages can also be optimized to allow diagnostic benefits not previously available. This paper presents controls engineers, specifiers, and buyers with new insights into five crucial factors they must consider before selecting pneumatic fieldbus valve manifolds - commissioning, distribution, modularity, diagnostics, and recovery - while also outlining some shortcomings of conventional approaches. Finally, it highlights new designs that offer substantial improvements in the application, performance, and maintenance of these valve manifolds from the end users’ and OEMs’ points of view - from Numatics, Inc.
Taking the Bus - New coal fired plants are poised to benefit from the adoption of advanced automation and digital bus-based technologies - from Emerson Process Management.
Foundation fieldbus Videos - These videos are useful real examples of FF Technology.
The following are from Emerson Process Management:
Rosemount 3095 multivariable Fieldbus Transmitter - This video shows a Rosemount model 3095MV ("multivariable") transmitter having the capability to measure differential pressure, gauge (static) pressure, and process temperature all in one unit. Furthermore, being a FOUNDATION Fieldbus device, it can execute function blocks useful in performing control tasks. This makes the instrument capable of measuring mass flow rate as well as executing control functions, passing an "output" signal to some other Fieldbus device such as a valve positioner to control flow without need of an external control system.
Foundation Fieldbus Robustness - A DeltaV product demonstration showing how Foundation fieldbus device-based control loops remain operational even when redundant control cards are disabled.
I/O on Demand - Foundation Fieldbus - A demonstration showing how the DeltaV S-series Foundation fieldbus cards integrate power and diagnostics to eliminate complexity and reduce engineering work.
I/O on Demand-Electronic Marshalling - Whilst not Fieldbus related this demonstration shows how DeltaV S-series electronic marshalling dramatically reduces installation and maintenance costs while increasing engineering and start-up flexibility.
Fieldbus Interoperability - An overview of how DeltaV can talk to other suppliers' field devices.
Foundation Fieldbus - DeltaV FOUNDATION fieldbus demonstration.
Fieldbus and DeltaV - Machinery Health - A demonstration showing how the DeltaV system uses smart field device information to avoid abnormal situations caused by equipment issues.
Fieldbus and DeltaV: Instrument Air Leak Example - A demonstration showing how information from smart field devices combined with the DeltaV system's control strategies helps avoid process upset conditions.
Fieldbus and DeltaV - Advanced Control Field Device Failure - A demonstration showing how DeltaV system control strategies can incorporate information from smart field devices to ensure uninterrupted operations.
Redundant Fieldbus Interface - A short demonstration of the world's first host implementation of FOUNDATION fieldbus H1 interface redundancy in the DeltaV system.
Foundation Fieldbus Function Block Modes - Showing how we may view and change the operating modes of Fieldbus function blocks on the screen of an Emerson DeltaV DCS.
Foundation Fieldbus Function Block Signal Status - Showing how we may view the status of Fieldbus instrument signals on the screen of an Emerson DeltaV DCS.
Working with Multiple Fieldbus Networks - Russ Muller and James Powell discuss an application involving multiple fieldbus protocols.
Fieldbus Transmitter on DeltaV - This short video shows how a Fieldbus instrument appears on the display of DeltaV Explorer software. You can see all the available function blocks within this particular device (a Rosemount 3095 MV mass flow transmitter).
Fieldbus Network Voltage Measurements - Showing how to measure DC Volts and a simple check of Data flow using a multimeter.
Fieldbus Network Voltage Measurements 2 - More useful simple checks.
Fieldbus Device Commissioning Label - A excellent video detailing the information on rosemount fieldbus device commissioning labels.
Fieldbus Network Voltage Oscilloscope Display - How to use an Oscilloscope in a fieldbus network.
Fieldbus pH Transmitter Calibration - Calibrating a Mettler-Toledo pH transmitter that is FOUNDATION Fieldbus instead of 4-20 mA. First, the calibration points were set using Emerson AMS software to access the digital parameters inside the transmitter. Then, the transmitter was standardized using two pH buffer solutions: 7pH and 4pH.
Back-up LAS - A DeltaV product demonstration of backup communications in interoperable fieldbus devices.
Fieldbus Coupling "brick" with Short-Circuit Protection - A demonstration of the short circuit protection and detection and how the segment is protected.
Foundation™ fieldbus Educational Links
Fieldbus - Competent People will be at a premium - (Article from Jim Russell of ICEweb)
SAIT Foundation Fieldbus™ Certified Training - Since 2000, SAIT Polytechnic has been helping managers, engineers and technicians worldwide realize the potential of Foundation™ fieldbus technology. SAIT offers the five-day Foundation™ Fieldbus Certified Professional and the four-day Foundation™ Certified Technician. Delivered in SAIT's dedicated lab facilities, these fast-track programs present theory and lab exercises in order to gain practical knowledge. Find out about upcoming dates for these courses.
Foundation Fieldbus Competency - Project Training Recommendations - This article outlines a suggested approach for staff training in any new FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus (FF) project - including both greenfield and brownfield sites - Thanks to Seacove Systems-Australia.
Foundation Fieldbus Training in Australia - A Variety of Courses from Seacove Systems. This is Foundation Fieldbus End User Council Australia Inc accredited training.
Foundation Fieldbus End User Training - As adoption of Foundation™ technology expands throughout the process industries, there is a corresponding need to train plant personnel on the use of this advanced control solution. Fieldbus Foundation-certified training, with centres located around the world, offers workshops that every end user should attend.
Foundation Fieldbus Concepts - A comprehensive self-paced learning module on CD-ROM - Used in Lee College's Fieldbus FOUNDATION certified training curriculum-From Hightech Multimedia Tutorials
The PlantWeb University has excellent courses on Foundation Fieldbus. You will have to log on but it is worth the effort!
Foundation Fieldbus Useful Websites
The Fieldbus Reference List - R.A. Hulsebos- If you thought there were a lot of networks that call themselves "fieldbus", look here. A great job Rob! - Rob's home page is also worth a look.
Fieldbus Web Sites - A non-comprehensive list of other online sources of information about Fieldbus products and practices.
A swag of papers and other information is available from the Fieldbus Foundation under the headings of :-
Technology - FOUNDATION technology improves the performance of the process industries. It’s the key to a modern, field-based control architecture. Presentations are available concerning a range of technology-related topics.
Economics - FOUNDATION technology reduces both capital equipment costs and plant operating expenses. Users achieve a competitive advantage in a today’s global marketplace. Find out more for yourself.
Applications - End users with mission-critical applications benefit from the implementation of FOUNDATION-based control systems. View presentations describing fieldbus projects around the world.
White Papers - The Fieldbus Foundation provides a variety of technical white papers explaining the design, installation and operation of Foundation-based plant automation systems. These documents where prepared by leading experts on Foundation technology, and include a wealth of valuable information for process industry end users.
Articles - The Fieldbus Foundation has a number of Tutorial articles, user case histories, commentaries and other editorials help automation industry members understand Foundation technology.
The Fieldbus Report - Each issue contains technology information, application studies, products news, and more. Current and recent issues of this publication are available for download. The downloads are huge so if you are not on broadband expect to wait a long time!
Installations - Fieldbus Foundation listing of articles relating to publicly-announced Foundation™ fieldbus installations in countries around the world.
Foundation Fieldbus End User Councils - You can have a voice in the future of Foundation fieldbus by participating in a Fieldbus Foundation End User Council (EUC). Regional EUCs, established worldwide. These provide an excellent open forum for the exchange of information about the application and development of fieldbus technology in a wide range of industries.
http://www.fieldbusinc.com - this useful link from Fieldbus Inc has useful papers and other details on Foundation fieldbus.
Fieldbus Technical Comparison Data and Tools for Various Buses
HART v Foundation Fieldbus - The Facts and the Real Difference - Jim Russell - Thanks to ICEweb.
The question is often asked “Why should I install Foundation Fieldbus™ when the features are all available with HART?” This White paper addresses this question, provides some of the answers and covers the following;
- The Technologies
- Differences, Advantages and Disadvantages
- Why some Manufacturers / Suppliers continue to push HART and put up a “Smokescreen”.
- Brownfield and Greenfield Plants- What technology should be used.
- Simple HART v FF Comparison Chart.
An End User Functional Comparison of HART® and FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus Protocols - from Emerson Process Management
Bus Comparison Matrix - This must be just about the best bus comparison document around - Thanks to Rob Hulsebos.
Electronic Device Description Language
The following information are thanks to www.eddl.org.
The Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) - Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) technology is used by major manufacturers to describe the information that is accessible in digital devices. Electronic device descriptions are available for over 15 million devices that are currently installed in the process industry. The technology is used by the major process control systems and maintenance tool suppliers to support device diagnostics and calibration. Just "heaps" of information here on the EDDL site!
EDDL Makes Device Setup Easy - Device setup (aka configuration or parameterization) can be carried out using a handheld communicator in the field, a laptop in the workshop, or from intelligent device management software as part of asset management solution. Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is the technology used by device manufacturers to define how the system shall display the device setup parameters to the technician. EDDL makes setup of intelligent devices easier thanks to user guidance such as wizards, illustrative images, and help text, and provides unparalleled consistency of use.
Device Revision and Lifecycle Management Guide - How to keep systems up to date and compatible with new devices using EDDL - DDL (IEC 61804-3) is a device integration technology created as a solution to the device revision problem. EDDL makes managing devices of different types and versions easier. EDDL2 is a file that is loaded onto the computer or handheld field communicator. There is no EDDL inside the device3 itself. Thus there is no such thing as an "EDDL device" or a "non-EDDL device". Devices are HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, PROFIBUS, and WirelessHART devices, and these protocols support EDDL.
EDDL Makes Device Diagnostics Easy - Device diagnostics can be carried out using a handheld communicator in the field, a laptop in the workshop, or from intelligent device management software as part of asset management solution, either from a dedicated maintenance console or integrated in the operator console (see separate white paper on integrated operation). Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is the technology used by device manufacturers to control how the device diagnostics is displayed to the technician. EDDL makes diagnostics of smart transmitters and other intelligent devices easier thanks to user guidance such as wizards and help, and provides unparalleled consistency of use.
EDDL Makes Calibration Easy - Calibration can be carried out using a handheld communicator in the field, a laptop in the workshop, or from intelligent device management software as part of asset management solution, either in a dedicated maintenance console or integrated in the operator console (see separate white paper on integrated operation). Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is the technology used by device manufacturers to control how the device diagnostics is displayed to the technician. EDDL makes calibration of intelligent devices easier thanks to user guidance such as wizards and help, and unparalleled consistency of use.
Commentary on FDT/DTM vs. EDDL - This commentary is highlighting some observations in the WIB test report T 2768 X 07 "FDT/DTM or EDDL for asset management using FF technology" dated November 2007, usually left out when referenced by the FDT Group. It also explains some misconceptions, probably due to only one device having been verified.
EDDL makes Working in the Field Easy - Field communicators have existed for as long as intelligent devices. The early problem of plants having to grapple with many different communicators was solved already in the mid nineties by standard protocols like HART and Foundation fieldbus together with the Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL, formerly just known as DDL), an integral part of both technologies. A single universal field communicator supports all instruments, an arsenal of many communicators is no longer required.
Consistent Look & Feel - EDDL makes Intelligent Device Management Software Humane - When devices from multiple vendors were first integrated using bus technologies there were difficulties accessing all device features and there were difficulties to make full use of the features that could be accessed. Many plants were not able to use the device management software part of their asset management solutions to its full potential. A new concept was required to achieve even greater results with digital bus technologies. The new innovative solution to the problem was enhancements to an old technology that has been an unnoticed part of leading digital bus technologies for over fifteen years. This international standard, called EDDL (IEC 61804-3), with enhancements, makes bus technologies come alive and easy to use in exactly the same way the World Wide Web made the old Internet come alive and so easy that anyone could use it. Systems based on EDDL with enhancements now make maintaining intelligent devices very much easier for technicians and enable digital bus technologies to be fully utilized to derive greater result for the plant and there are no other means to achieve the same result. This article will explain how consistent look & feel is achieved in spite of each device manufacturer independently deciding display content any way they like.
EDDL Questions Answered - 20 FAQ questions about EDDL answered.
Keeping Systems and Communicators Up-to-date using EDDL - Technical Paper - Christian Diedrich, Jonas Berge, Ludwig Winkel and Terry Blevins - Modern control systems as well as Device Management software and field communicators use electronic device descriptions, EDD, to define the interface and supported interactions with field devices for configuration, diagnostics and calibration. Over the long life of plants, new device types and versions keep getting added as part of replacements and modifications. Thus, these systems and maintenance tools must accommodate many new types, each generation also providing new features. For example, more than 1000 EDD’s are currently available from 85 different vendors. Also, many manufacturers are currently updating their device descriptions to take advantage of the visual enhancements recently introduced into the IEC61804-3 standard, Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL). Therefore, to achieve the best results, the latest electronic device descriptions should be used with your HART devices and Profibus and Foundation fieldbus devices.
The following Foundation fieldbus technical information is from Emerson Process Management.
Digital Fieldbus Installations Use EDDL Technology for Simplicity with Advanced, Full Functionality - EDDL technology enables a Host System manufacturer to create a single engineering environment that can support any device, from any supplier, using any communications protocol, without the need for custom software drivers for each device type.
EDDL: Marching into Mainstream - Jonas Berge - Simple smart pressure and temperature measurement transmitters could be configured without need for graphics. However, more sophisticated (complex) devices such as valve positioners, variable speed drives, machinery health monitors, and radar level transmitters now common in process industry plants require advanced graphical setup and diagnostics. By upgrading software to the new enhancements of the international standard IEC 61804, plant personnel can make their devices, both old and new, simple and advanced, easier to use than ever before. Similarly, predictive diagnostics can be better integrated into daily work practices by displaying them to the right persons. This is achieved without making system management more difficult with respect to staying current with new devices and Windows versions. This article recommends a best practice for device integration outlined in the NAMUR NE 105 recommendation by upgrading to a single standard: IEC 61804-3.
Temperature Transmitters Warming Up to EDDL - Jonas Berge - Enhancements to the EDDL IEC 61804-3 standards have improved advanced setup and diagnosis of high-end temperature transmitters. Temperature transmitters communicate digitally using protocols such as HART, Foundation fieldbus, and WirelessHART. Supporting this mix of transmitters can be a challenge. However, modern temperature transmitters diagnose themselves, the sensor wiring, and the temperature element. This allows for more effective maintenance schemes that help keep the loop and plant running with minimum downtime.
Pressure Transmitters: EDDL Equals "Easy" - Dale Perry/Jonas Berge - EDDL technology makes sophisticated pressure transmitters easier to use. within the last few years many specialised pressure transmitters have been introduced. These transmitters specialise in areas such as DP Flow, Mass Flow, Safety Certified, and Diagnostics. The value of specialised transmitters has been demonstrated to increase quality, throughput, or uptime. Any added complexity of maintaining these transmitters through their life cycle, installation, start-up, routine maintenance or emergency maintenance could be a challenge to plants.
OPC made Easy - EDDL can save numerous man-hours of OPC server configuration and speed up project completion - Jonas Berge - OPC is an o p e n standard me t h o d for transferring data between software applications, used for example to obtain data from devices. Once an OPC server is configured, external software in HMI clients and other users can easily access the wealth of detailed diagnostics and information in hundreds or thousands of intelligent devices around the plant. Configuring OPC clients is easy: just point and click on data in the OPC server. To enable this, the OPC server must first be configured. Electronic device description language (EDDL) makes this easy.
EDDL: Unlocking Device Information - Jonas Berge explains how enhanced Electronics Device Description Language (EDDL) simplifies device configuration, calibration and diagnosis, and brings benefits to the bottom line.
EDDL allows Interoperability for Devices to Constantly Gather Information - No matter what control system a plant is using, it is now easier for users to choose best-in-class instruments for their networks. The technology that allows this is Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL). From the ISA and InTech.
1.14 The Digital Drive - Jonas Berge explains how variable speed drives can become an integral part of the digital plant architecture. The final control element that first comes to mind for process applications is the control valve, but variable speed drives (VSD) also variously referred to as a variable frequency drives (VFD), adjustable frequency drives, or frequency converters are also used as final elements in closed loop flow or pressure control. When it comes to set up, the sheer amount of configuration options available in a variable speed drive can seem overwhelming to technicians who have to commission them. A drive can have hundreds of parameters to customize AC motor controls for different applications. Most AC drives also have useful diagnostics about the motor and drive system and some even have predictive diagnostics. To help technicians more easily setup applications and diagnose problems, drive manufacturers now use electronic device description language (EDDL) to make drives easy to setup and diagnose by defining how the drives are displayed in the system. Bus technology and EDDL provide the ability to integrate instrumentation and controls with electrical and switchgear, enabling plants to freely select control system and electrical system independently, yet enjoy the ease of use as a result of tight integration - from Control Engineering Asia.
Calibration Advantages using Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) Technology
The following white papers and articles are from the EDDL group.
Calibration Trim - EDDL technology makes calibration easier thanks to user guidance such as wizards as well as know-how made available from the device manufacturer's experts. The result is lower cost of maintenance, and better performing devices.
Intelligent Device Management Tutorial: Calibration - In the early days of smart transmitters the concept of remote range setting ("remote calibration") and re-ranging without applying input was revolutionary. It took years of education to be accepted and understood. Calibration can be carried out using a handheld communicator in the field, a laptop in the workshop, or from intelligent device management software as part of an asset management solution. Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is the technology used by device manufacturers to define how the system shall display the device information and functions to the technician. EDDL makes calibration of smart transmitters and other intelligent devices easier thanks to user guidance such as wizards and help, and unparalleled consistency of use.
EDDL Solution for Field Tasks - Field communicators have existed for as long as intelligent devices. The early problem of plants having to grapple with many different communicators was solved already in the mid nineties by standard protocols like HART and Foundation fieldbus together with the Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL, formerly just known as DDL), an integral part of both technologies. A single universal field communicator supports all instruments, an arsenal of many communicators is no longer required.Use of Windows software from the central control room has since become possible thanks to multiplexers and digital communication interfaces embedded in control system I/O modules. These systems may access data in devices using HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, PROFIBUS, WirelessHART, or a combination of two or more of these. Although many maintenance tasks can be done remotely from centrally located device management software part of Asset Management Solution (AMS), there are several other tasks that must still be carried out in the field right next to the device. Because of such field work, a compact field communicator is highly valued by maintenance technicians. A notebook computer is not ideal. EDDL is the only technology suitable for portable communicators because it works on embedded operating system used in such devices. IEC 61804-3 graphical enhancements the EDDL now make field communicators easier to use and powerful enough for complex devices.
Calibration Trim Wizard using EDDL - Narrated by Emerson's Harish Jayaraman this video shows how calibration trim is simplified by wizards from software or handheld communicator from different vendors using EDDL - from YouTube.
Field Device Integration
Field Device Integration (FDI) - Making Device Management Easy - End users have struggled with different forms of device integration technology over the years, but the FDI effort aims to rationalize the worlds’ leading technologies for managing information from intelligent field devices. With FDI, managing the flood of information from today’s intelligent devices will get much easier. FDI will allow users to focus on how to best use their applications instead of worrying about how everything will connect together. FDI also means reduced development costs for device and system suppliers - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
A Comprehensive16 page Discrete Digital Signal Technical Manual from Samson Controls.
Field Device Tool (FDT) Technology
FDT/DTM - The most Powerful Way to Release Intelligence built in Smart Field Devices - Visualization of these diagnostics requires a graphical user interface which meets customer expectations for openness and the capability to be integrated in any system. The technology supporting these very basic requirements is FDT (Field Device Tool). FDT is developed and marketed by the FDT group, which is a group of leading automation suppliers to both the process and factory automation industries. Go to page 7 to get this article - From Metso Automation.
Good for Maintenance - Even better with Monitoring! - Ulrich Gensicke - FDT-based device and asset management software saves more than time and costs.To be competitive, high productivity and reliability are important factors. Use of an online diagnostic and monitoring system guarantees that all the functions of intelligent field devices can be exploited to the maximum - From Metso Automation.
Open Asset Management with FDT: the Core of a ‘Smart’ Process Plant - Field Device Type (FDT) technology remains one of the automation industry’s best-kept secrets. In spite of this, it is rapidly gaining market acceptance by simplifying the digital communication between a plant’s field devices and its control environment. It is at the heart of a ‘smart’ plant’s IT infrastructure and can deliver major cost savings to the plant’s operations - from www.processonline.com.au.
FDT Technology Provides Valuable Information on the Desktop - End Users Benefit from Trend in Increased Visibility of Diagnostic Information - David Huffman - Visibility and simple presentation of diagnostic information is growing more important every day. We see the influence of developments in this area from the printers in our homes or offices to some of the latest "heads up" displays in our automobiles. So it should be no surprise that similar advances are being made for the control platforms and critical instrumentation in our manufacturing facilities. Thanks to controlglobal.com.
The following links are from the FDT Group.
Field Device Technology (FDT) - Technical Description - FDT (Field Device Technology) is an interface specification for open data exchange between field devices and automation plants that is standardized by the international standards IEC 62453 and ISA103. In Field Device Technology, two terms are particularly important: DTM (Device Type Manager, or “device driver”) and FDT Frame Application. Both are software components whose functions can only be performed together. FDT provides a common platform for data exchange for all available device drivers (DTMs) produced under this standard. This allows complete and functional access across different network hierarchies to all device functions for devices made available by the DTM. With this capability, every device can be confi gured, serviced, and maintained via one basically standardized user interface - independent of manufacturer, device type or communication protocol. Information from an automation plant (especially communications or field devices) is needed throughout the entire life cycle of a system or application. FDT provides support with versatile and extremely helpful functions as early as planning and project engineering, then during installation and commissioning, and finally during operation and service.
FDT Movie - Are you looking for an easy to understand introduction to FDT and its benefits? Have you always thought it would be nice to have something else to explain FDT than just a normal PowerPoint presentation?
Field Device Tool (FDT) Technology, What is It? - FDT (Field Device Tool) technology standardizes the communication interface between field devices and systems.The key feature is its independence from the communication protocol and the software environment of either the device or the host system. FDT allows any device to be accessed from any host through any protocol.
FDT Technology Benefits - User and Vendor benefits.
FDT Introduction Brochure - FDT is an open technology that enables users to easily access and extract intelligent information from their automation products.
ISA103 Field Device Tool Interface - The FDT Group is dedicated to providing Open Access to Device Intelligence for the automation industry. Like other information technologies, the FDT Group is looking forward to the evolution of the FDT specification in response to the feedback from end users. The ISA103 Field Device Tool Interface Committee was formed in 2006 to consider the adoption of IEC 62453 Standard as an ISA Standard. In May 2009, the FDT Group achieved a significant milestone when the IEC 62453 Standard was unanimously accepted by the international standardization community.
Which is Better? - Currently, two technologies are available for doing so: DD (Device Descriptions) and its enhanced form eEDDL (enhanced Electronic Device Description Language), and FDT (Field Device Tool). In order to assess which approach delivers the best results, it was necessary to test and compare their performance in practice.
Value Proposition for FDT Technology Continues to Increase - Wil Chin and Paul Miller - Even after achieving a significant milestone in 2009, IEC 62453 approval, the FDT Group’s efforts continues. Under its new leadership, the FDT Group continues to move forward at an increasingly faster pace as more suppliers and users alike embrace the technology.
FDT Technology - What Are DTMs? - Annie Sisson - It has been recognized time again that the ability to have open access to device intelligence is essential to enhanced reliability and reduced start-up times. In the area of industrial automation, FDT Technology provides this “open access” with a device type manager (DTM). With DTMs, users can configure device parameters, operate devices via a graphical interface and access advanced diagnostic information from any location - thanks to Control Global.
FDT Open Access to Device Intelligence Unlocks Interoperability to Bridge Information Silos - The user benefits of truly open industrial device management continue to be an elusive goal in virtually every industry. For example, in the process industry, users have accepted that there will never be a single, standardized protocol for all applications. Other industries are suffering similar issues. If history is an indicator of the future, users will be working with multiple incompatible protocols for many years to come. Users continue to dream of the day when one can plug & play hardware and software seamlessly without a second thought regardless of industry, device, actuator, control system or application. FDT is making this closer to reality than anyone would have thought possible only a few years ago.
FDT - Technical Description - A comprehensive Technical Description.
Field Device Tool (FDT®) Technology for the Process Automation and Manufacturing Industries - What end users want is a standard interface that connects any automation system to any device, providing them with the freedom to choose the best device fit for their application, irrespective of supplier or communication protocol.
Human-Centered Design (HCD) in an FDT/DTM Environment - Tom Wallace - We Need a New Way to Interface With Field Devices That Increases Productivity, Reduces Training Needs, and Reduces Human Error - The process industry faces a perfect storm of factors that will change how we interact with field devices. Plants are becoming larger, more complex and subject to more regulation. Plants will have more devices, more different device types, and the devices themselves will be more complex. Also, devices and communication protocols are becoming more complex and capable. In addition, we're facing the loss of experienced workers with their replacements being less experienced and fewer in number. We face doing more work and more complex work with fewer and less experienced people. We need a new way to interface with field devices that increases productivity, reduces training needs, and reduces human error. This new way will use human-centered design (HCD) - from Control Global.
The Fieldbus Reference List:
The Fieldbus Reference List by R.A. Hulsebos is an extensive listing of links to would you believe 362 systems.
The following technical papers are available via Semiconductor OnLine:Alternative Fieldbus Approaches
Fieldbus Diagnostics, Without Fieldbus - George Buckbee and Tom Kinney, ExperTune Inc.- Digital field buses are often justified on the basis of the benefits of advanced diagnostics. This paper investigates and shows alternative technologies to capture diagnostics.
Fieldbus – Competent People will be at a Premium
Whatever digital fieldbus is your preference, if one wishes to maximise personal marketability it is time to think about gaining the competencies required to implement the technology.
Few would remember the last watershed in instrumentation, that is the change from pneumatics to electronics. Unfortunately I do and recollect it really hit home hard. At the time we had Scientific Instrument Makers who were responsible for the pneumatics and all those wonderful “gismos” like mercury manometers. All of a sudden these talented people were confronted with the “new technology” associated with electronics. Hence companies implemented costly training schemes and cross trained electricians who had some knowledge of wires and electrons. A proportion of the people involved in the transition adapted easily whilst others fell by the wayside after a few years.
The huge change from analogue to digital communications which is about to be imposed on us is likely to have a similar effect. I have heard it all before from people who “think” it is going to be a piece of cake to adopt this technology and above all be proficient in it. In my opinion most large new “greenfield” projects in the foreseeable future will utilise “fieldbus” technologies, thus if one is not contemplating imminent retirement it will be very important to address any skills shortfall.
Not withstanding the issue associated with new expertise requirements, these are really exciting times as it is only every 30 years or so that changes like this happen in our industry.
So what do YOU need to do to become knowledgable in this emerging technology area? If you have Internet access it is worthwhile perusing websites which may provide some “feel” for how fieldbus is put together. Good starting points are Rob Hulsebos’s fieldbus reference list http://ourworld-top.cs.com/rahulsebos/index.htm and the link to the Foundation fieldbus End Users Council Australia (Inc) (FFEUC-Aust) which can be found at www.iceweb.com.au. This site has a considerable amount of fieldbus data. It is also worth joining many of the fieldbus email technical lists.
One has to consider courses, starting with the basics and then real “hands on”. You will find that as an Instrument and Control practitioner there is a fundamental change required in that communications takes on a whole new focus. It is necessary to get to grips with user layers, communications stacks and physical layers along with other communications skills.
This is only a small part of the learning required to become proficient in fieldbus. The technology requires a complete change in “mindset” from the present analogue concepts. Design, construction, commissioning, documenting and maintenance techniques are radically different. We will learn lots of new terms such as “brick”, “chicken foot”, “segment” and “daisy chain”. Hence there is a very steep learning curve for us all to be “fieldbus ready”.
Tools are an important component in “how to implement fieldbus” and help avoid simple traps. Some companies have already developed or are developing “smart tools”. These include checking for correct connections, signal strength, segment loading, wiring acceptability and terminators in place.
The viewpoint is that it is very important for all Instrument and Control practitioners to become familiar with fieldbus technology. Sure, we can stay in the “Comfort Zone” of existing analogue systems but, beware, the fieldbus juggernaut is off and rolling and may leave you behind if action to address shortfall competencies in this area is not taken.
Jim Russell - Chair Foundation fieldbus End User Council Australia (Inc).
Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol (HART)
Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol (HART)
HART - The Premier Tool for Asset Management - Cut downtime and improve profits with the tools you already have - Do more with less. That’s the mantra of many industries today in North America or anywhere else around the globe. Companies no longer have employees that aren’t fully utilized-nobody has a couple of hours to grab a clipboard and some test equipment and go out in the plant to check the condition of field devices and final control elements. Besides, plants require hot work permits, safety information, workarounds and other time-consumers, making it highly unproductive to grab that clipboard and go. Companies around the world have begun formal programs to use the diagnostic data in their HART-smart instruments and control valve actuators and positioners by directly connecting them to the asset management systems in the maintenance department.
Get Connected to the Benefits of HART 7 - Suzanne Gill - Charles Larson was quoted in the HARTline Newsletter in In this story discussing the benefits of HART 7 it is highlighted that the introduction of HART 7 has “improved the ability of additional data and diagnostic information from devices” along with increasing “the awareness of users to the wealth of information in HART devices that can be used in plant efficiency.” From Moore Industries.
Reading HART Data into Non-HART Systems - Many HART products are able to perform more than one measurement or output function (e.g., make multiple process measurements, calculate process information, and provide positioner feedback information). All of this information can be easily accessed digitally. However, existing controllers or interface equipment may not have the ability to read digital HART data. Products are available that can read HART digital signals and convert them to analog (4-20mA) and alarm trip (contact closure) information, which enables any traditional analog control system to take full advantage of the benefits of HART - communicating devices. From Moore Industries.
HART Monitors Extract Data from Smart Instruments - Simple Modules Expand Transmitter Usefulness - Greg Feliks - The HART digital signal often contains additional process measurements and other variables that may include instrument status, diagnostic data, alarms, calibration values and commands. In many cases, HART instruments were installed simply because they could be configured and diagnosed easily with a handheld HART communicator device. For a variety of reasons, the rest of the HART data often goes unused. One reason is because of the prohibitive cost of installing a plant-wide HART monitoring system. Another reason is the lack of familiarity with alternatives. A simple and cost effective solution for gathering HART information is to use a HART interface device only in the specific instances where it is needed most. Fortunately, HART interface devices, available from several manufacturers, make acquiring HART data a fairly simple proposition. This HART data is then made available to the control system via analog signals, discrete outputs or serial communications. From Moore Industries.
HART Communications - An excellent 40 page technical paper from Samson Controls - Field networks are not the only solution when plant operators want to use the advantages of smart field devices. The HART protocol provides many possibilities even for installations that are equipped with the conventional 4 to 20 mA technique. HART devices communicate their data over the transmission lines of the 4 to 20 mA system. This enables the field devices to be parameterized and started up in a flexible manner or to read measured and stored data (records). All these tasks require field devices based on microprocessor technology. These devices are frequently called smart devices. Introduced in 1989, this protocol has proven successful in many industrial applications and enables bidirectional communication even in hazardous environments. HART allows the use of up to two masters: the engineering console in the control room and a second device for operation on site, e.g. a PC laptop or a handheld terminal.
HART v Foundation Fieldbus - The Facts and the real difference - Jim Russell - Thanks to ICEweb The question is often asked “Why should I install Foundation Fieldbus™ when the features are all available with HART?” This White paper addresses this question, provides some of the answers and covers the following;
- The Technologies
- Differences, Advantages and Disadvantages
- Why some Manufacturers / Suppliers continue to push HART and put up a “Smokescreen”
- Brownfield and Greenfield Plants
- What technology should be used
- Simple HART v FF Comparison Chart
Obtaining Stranded Information and Diagnostics - Most plants have hundreds, or even thousands, of HART devices, but not all of these are delivering the full range of process variables, calibration, maintenance and diagnostic data to plant operators and maintenance departments. This is because they have no means of delivering that data to the control room. One reason is that some legacy control systems are analogue, meaning they have no access to the digital HART data thus preventing operators from taking full advantage of the device intelligence. To achieve maximum insight, the existing control system must be upgraded by installing HART I/O interface cards and software modules - from SA Instrument & Control.
Smart HART Transmitters, Monitors and Interfaces
Extracting HART Data from Smart Instruments - According to the FieldComm Group (formerly the HART Communications Foundation), there are more than 30 million HART-enabled instruments installed in chemical and process plants worldwide, and most process transmitters made today are HART compatible. The HART digital signal often contains valuable process measurements and other variables including instrument status, diagnostic data, alarms, calibration values and alert messages. However, many systems fail to utilize the critical information available from HART-enabled transmitters, valve positioners, flowmeters and other "smart" devices. This article from Moore Industries shows how a HART interface device can serve as a simple and cost-effective solution for gathering HART information.
Problem Solvers from Moore Industries - These are really excellent.
4-20mA Isolator Passes HART Signal
Additional HART Loops to Share Process Signals
"Break Out" Analog Signals with the HIM
Connecting a HART Device to a DCS with MODBUS
Connecting HMI to Tank Gauge Sensors
Digital Signal Unaffected by Analog Errors
HART pH Transmitter Interface to Control Room
HART Multiplexers That Maximize Space
HART Signal Interference
Monitoring and Powering a 2-Wire Transmitter
Multi-Level Alarming for a Single Process Variable
Passing HART Signals While Maintaining Safety Isolation
Reducing Process Disruption in On-Line ESD Valve Testing
Safeguard Expensive I/O Cards from Overloading
Use HIM in "Listen" Mode to Sample HART Data
HART Technical Information
About the HART Protocol - The HART Protocol was developed in the mid-1980s by Rosemount Inc. for use with a range of smart measuring instruments. Originally proprietary, the protocol was soon published for free use by anyone, and in 1990 the HART User Group was formed. In 1993, the registered trademark and all rights in the protocol were transferred to the HART Communication Foundation (HCF). The protocol remains open and free for all to use without royalties.
The following is from the HART Communication Foundation.
How HART Works - This is a useful technical overview of the technology.
Benefits of Using HART - There are many benefits in using this technology, these are detailed in this article.
HART Technical Manuals, Documents and Articles - The following manuals, documents and articles from the Hart Communication Foundation provide technical information on various HART Communication Protocol related topics. Educational in nature, these materials provide a better understanding of this valuable technology to anyone interested in learning more about it.
HART Application Guide
HART Protocol Technical Overview
HART Communication: Driving New Product Developments
The HART® Protocol - A Solution Enabling Technology
The Impact of HART on Process Automation
Preventing Process Disruptions
Understanding The Power of HART Communication
The HART® Protocol - A Solution Enabling Technology - HART® Field Communications Protocol is widely accepted in the industry as the standard for digitally enhanced 4-20mA communication with smart field instruments. A wide range of products from an increasing number of suppliers is available today, and many more are in development. The enhanced two-way communication capability of instruments using the HART protocol can significantly improve plant information management, provide solutions to today's business challenges, and yield substantial cost savings. Initial installation/commissioning savings of $400 to $500 per instrument and annual maintenance/operations savings of $100 to $200 per instrument are commonly reported.
Romilly's HART® and Fieldbus Web Site -This web site specialises in the digital communication protocols used in industrial automation, with special attention to HART.
For details on Wireless HART see ICEweb's Industrial Wireless Page.
Industrial Ethernet - The use of Ethernet as an industrial network is a subject for which still very little documentation is available. This publication focuses entirely on this type of usage of Ethernet, and how this relates to the operation of Ethernet. A difference between an office-user of Ethernet and an industrial user of Ethernet is that the former is not interested in (seemingly trivial) details of internal Ethernet operation, while the latter must sometimes know all the details in order to assure that the network operates correctly under all circumstances. Despite many publications in the trade press about industrial Ethernet, it is difficult to find relevant technical information void of marketing hype and commercial interests. This excellent 100 page publication addresses this - thanks to Rob Hulsebos.
Industrial Ethernet Handbook - A Practical Guideline - This guideline is intended for planners, installation engineers and startup engineers for Industrial Ethernet (IE) networks. It communicates, from experience, tips, tricks and shortcuts that make the work easier. This guidelines is not an IE compendium from a basic manual. Thanks to Weidmuller Australia.
Industrial Ethernet - Another Emerging Technology.
The Industrial Ethernet University - The purpose of the university is to educate the public on the benefits of deploying Industrial Ethernet in a variety of solutions for applications. Students will be taught the basics of Industrial Ethernet from the physical and data link layers up through the network, transport and application layers. The material presented will be vendor-neutral since the purpose of the university is to educate the public for the benefit of the industry. The cost of this...free.
The Case for Industrial Ethernet - From "the Industrial Ethernet Book".
Charles Spurgeon's Ethernet Web Site - This site provides extensive information about Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) local area network (LAN) technology. This includes the original 10 Megabit per second (Mbps) system, 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet (802.3u), 1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet (802.3z/802.3ab), and 10 Gigabit Ethernet (802.3ae).
Industrial Ethernet Handbook for Engineers - Engineers working to understand the nuances of Ethernet topologies, interconnection schemes, and application guidelines will find HARTING’s Industrial Ethernet Handbook a valuable engineering reference source. The detailed, 168-page handbook covers the technical details of Ethernet, comparing it to other fieldbus systems, and explaining its Open System Interconnection (ISO/OSI) Reference Model. Its Annex details pertinent standards and application guidelines, such as EN, IEEE, IEC, UL, and HD/VDE. This Annex also contains an extensive bibliography on fieldbus and Ethernet technology, along with Internet links to other resources.
The HARTING Handbook explains:
- Open System Interconnection (ISO/OSI) Reference Model
- Comparison of Ethernet to other fieldbus systems
- Power over Ethernet (PoE) connectivity
- 26-page glossary of terms/acronyms
Ethernet Basics - This Industrial Ethernet Basics Guide defines all of the basic network building blocks like hubs, switches, routers, bridges, terminal servers and gateways; it explains issues in selecting cables for demanding applications, and issues regarding software drivers and network speed. It explains network design rules for hubs and repeaters; and it explains the 7-Layer networking model in plain English - from B&B Electronics.
Media Redundancy Concepts - High Availability in Industrial Ethernet - The general idea of media redundancy and redundant paths is almost as old as the use of Ethernet for industrial communications, and so is the dilemma that – by definition – Ethernet technology’s broadcast nature does not permit physical loops and therefore effectively forbids redundant communications paths. However, fault tolerance, which necessitates the use of redundant structures, is a vital basic requirement of very many automation systems. This means that the use of Ethernet for automation technology applications calls for protocols that are able to resolve the physical loops generated by the introduction of redundant pathways. To facilitate the use of redundant communications structures in office environments, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) specified the spanning tree protocol (STP), which was published in the 802.1D 1990 standard. For the first time this enabled all Ethernet switches to employ an algorithm to facilitate interconnected network structures, albeit with switchover times of the order of many tens of seconds. Further protocols based on the underlying STP mechanisms were subsequently developed, and these were better tailored to the specific requirements of an industrial environment, in particular with markedly reduced switchover times. This white paper will give you an overview of the current state of the technology and its solutions and also sketch a number of specific applications - from Belden.
Why 'Industrial Ethernet' is more than just 'Industrial' + 'Ethernet' - Justin Nga - The increasing use of digital equipment in industrial environments coupled with increased integration and data bandwidth requirements has led to growing adoption of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) for communication in place of older serial-based communication systems. However, simply selecting ruggedised versions of Ethernet equipment originally designed for conventional IT environments will not create a true Industrial Ethernet network - from Belden and PACE.
Building Automation Migrates towards Ethernet and Wireless - James Hunt - Buildings are becoming more automated, but what kind of communication and control networks are needed? As building electrical installations gain greater sophistication, there is a corresponding growing requirement for extensive functional diversity, convenience and efficient operation of the increasingly large number of digital products that the average building now contains. This article reports on building automation requirements, and networking techniques used to carry out energy management and control tasks - from the Industrial Ethernet Book.
Industrial Ethernet : A Control Engineer’s Guide - As part of a continuing effort to make their organizations more efficient and productive, manufacturers are rapidly migrating to Industrial Ethernet technology. This standards-based technology enables organizations to control costs by moving from costly proprietary systems to a proven technology that is more secure, reliable, and deterministic. This white paper provides an overview of Ethernet technology and its benefits in the data networking environment. It discusses the benefits of using a switched Ethernet architecture in industrial networking environments, including Determinism, Latency, Minimal packet loss, Broadcasts and multicast support, Network analyzer monitoring and Standardized infrastructure.
The Ethernet Buzzword Guide - This Guide gives you the lowdown on network & TCP/IP Terms: What does 10BASE-T mean? How about half- and full- duplex? What's the difference between a hub and a switch? A port and a socket? What is CSMA/CD? You'll find answers to all these questions, and concise definitions on this simple 3-page guide - from B&B Electronics.
Power over Ethernet Switches for Industrial Networking - Alvis Chen - This white paper introduces the basics of PoE technology and the new 802.3at standard, followed by a discussion on the required functions and benefits of adopting PoE switches for industrial networking - from Moxa and Leadwise.
TechFest Ethernet Technical Summary - A useful technical overview from TechFest.
Field Device Tool - Field Device Tool promises a method of creating universal interfaces between control or configuration devices and field devices - sensors, valves, actuators, analysers, drives, PLCs, safety systems, etc. From www.ethernet.industrial-networking.com.
Redundancy in EtherNet/IP systems - Alain Grenier - As with any Ethernet-based industrial protocol, in EtherNet/IP, redundancy-the repetition or duplication of messages to circumvent transmission errors-is required to maintain maximum uptime while still enabling the system to deal with minor outages and potential failures to the environment. Redundancy plays a critical role in determining the reliability of the entire system, from the very edge devices, through the network core, to the plant backbone - from ISA.
Ethernet Cables - This article from chipkin.com covers; Cat5 and Cat5e - Where do the terms Cat5 and Cat5e come from and what is the difference and Ethernet Colour Coding.
Power Over Ethernet - POE is a technology that provides electrical power to a Powered Device using conductors in a CAT5 cable. Power is delivered by means of a DC voltage and maximum current rating. Typical Power Sourcing Equipment devices are network switches. Even though there is a standard (IEEE 802.3af) there are a number of factors you should watch for as this technology emerges and evolves because as usual the devil is in the detail - from chipkin.com.
The Industrial Ethernet Book has editorial reflecting the latest new s and technology. The publication is constantly broadening its coverage to include Ethernet TCP/IP applications, enterprise and internet connectivity, wireless networking and embedded networking.
The Following webinars are available from the PROFINET group, you have to register to access them.
Industrial Ethernet, an Introduction - Industrial Ethernet use is growing rapidly. If your plant does not already use it, chances are good that it will soon. Prepare yourself by understanding the basics of Ethernet.
Industrial Ethernet, Ethernet Network Architecture - This is the first and second of a three-part series on the basics of Ethernet, especially as they relate to industrial automation.
Industrial Ethernet, Advanced Ethernet Architecture -This is the third in a three-part series to give you the basics of Ethernet, especially as they relate to industrial automation.
PROFINET - the all-encompassing Industrial Ethernet - PROFINET is the one network that covers all applications that are encountered in a plant: real-time IO, motion control, safety, wireless, vertical integration, peer-to-peer integration, and integration of other fieldbuses. This overview introduces these functions and provides references for further information.
Industrial Ethernet Diagnostics - This webinar on Industrial Ethernet Diagnostics describes how to troubleshoot and diagnose problems on an Industrial Ethernet network. It highlights which tools from the IT world are useful for Industrial Ethernet.
Industrial Wireless Networking - In this Industrial Wireless Networking webinar you'll learn all about the latest Wireless technologies in use for Industrial Wireless applications including IEEE 802.11 (Wireless Ethernet) , Bluetooth, and other wireless technologies.
MES and PROFINET - The PROFINET and MES Maintenance Operations guideline of PI (PROFIBUS PROFINET International) defines an open integration path between MES and PROFINET based automation systems.
PROFINET in the Process Industries - As a backbone network, PROFINET is ideally suited to the task of surfacing process data stored in control systems and field devices. Media gaps that hinder the flow of critical data between process equipment and enterprise systems can be bridged with PROFINET proxies, creating an all-encompassing network architecture that brings the now ubiquitous industrial Ethernet into the process plant.
Introduction To EtherNet/IP - An in-depth discussion of the CIP protocol, explains OSI layers and illustrates key concepts. EtherNet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is traditional Ethernet combined with an industrial application layer protocol targeted to industrial automation. This application layer protocol is the Control and Information Protocol (CIP™). Thanks to Acromag and Automation World.
Ethernet on the Floor - There is a proper time and place for industrial communications deployment - Mark Fondl - There is no doubt about it: Ethernet continues to grow from year to year throughout the automation industry. But the real issue is why aren't users adopting it at a more rapid pace? From the InTech and ISA.
Industrial network integrity- New-era industrial network communications require fresh skills and tools - Ian Verhappen and Eric Byres - If the reliability of the process rides under a veil of question and uncertainty, there is big trouble. With industrial communications networks playing a critical role in today’s control systems, it is vitally important these networks have the highest level of reliability possible - from the ISA and InTech.
Ethernet Based Instrumentation - While extending Ethernet to a PLC or DCS I/O block is very common, the idea of using it to connect to individual process or discrete sensing devices is relatively rare. But is that assessment changing? In this article, Control Engineering magazine's Peter Welander discusses the role of Ethernet based instrumentation in device-level networks.- from Control Engineering and Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Modbus has been around for years and is utilised comprehensively by Industry.
The following technical information is from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.
Using MODBUS for Process Control and Automation - MODBUS is the most popular industrial protocol being used today, for good reasons. It is simple, inexpensive, universal and easy to use. Even though MODBUS has been around for nearly 30 years, almost all major industrial instrumentation and automation equipment vendors continue to support it in new products. This white paper discusses how MODBUS works and a few clever ways it can be used in new and legacy plants.
Modbus Protocol - This is an excellent Modbus Reference from Modbus.com
- Chapter 1 - Modbus Protocol
- Chapter 2 - Data and Control Functions
- Chapter 3 - Diagnostic Subfunctions
- Chapter 4 - Exception Responses
- Chapter 5 - Application Notes
- Chapter 6 - LRC / CRC Generation
Modbus Interface Tutorial - Covers History of the Modbus protocol, Modbus message structure, Modbus serial transmission modes: Modbus/ASCII and Modbus/RTU, Modbus addressing, Modbus function codes - Thanks to Lammert Bies.
Modicon Modbus Protocol Reference Guide - This guide is written for the person who will use Modicon Modbus protocols and messages for communication in Modicon programmable controller applications. It describes how messages are constructed, and how transactions take place using Modbus protocol. This guide should be used in conjunction with Modicon user guides for the types of networks and programmable controllers present in the application. Familiarity with your network layout, and with your control application, is assumed - from eecs.
What you should know about Modbus - A good description from Modbus Driver.com.
Frequently Asked Questions about Modbus - The following questions are answered by "Simply Modbus".
What is Modbus?
What is it used for?
How does it work?
What is hexadecimal?
How is data stored in Standard Modbus?
What is a function code?
What is a CRC?
What are the formats of Modbus commands and responses?
What are data types?
What is byte and word ordering?
What is a Modbus Map?
What is the difference between Modbus ASCII and Modbus RTU?
What are extended register addresses?
How does 2-byte addressing work?
How can you send events and historical data?
What is Enron Modbus?
How Real and 32-bit Data is Encoded in Modbus RTU - This article discusses some of the typical difficulties encountered when handling 32-bit data types via Modbus RTU and offers practical help for solving these problems - from chipkin.com.
The September 2010 and October 2010 CAS newsletters have some Excellent Modbus Information - Included in these two parts is; MODBUS - Introduction, 4 types of data, There are (were) a Max of 9999 points of each data type, 5 Digit vs 6 Digit Addressing, What about Scaling In Modbus, Floating Point Numbers In Modbus, Byte/Word Order - An ambiguous nightmare, Bit Order - Sometimes it’s a problem too, Modbus and Gateways, What about errors / exceptions, There can only be one master on a Modbus Serial Trunk, Multiple Clients of a Modbus slave, Old device - slow processors - limited capability, Modbus Ascii, JBUS, Enron and other Variants, Modbus RS232, RS485 and TCP/IP, Modbus on RS232, Modbus on RS485, Modbus Resources, Testing and Trouble Shooting, What to take to site with you, Trouble Shooting Modbus TCP/IP, Using the CAS Modbus Scanner, Converting Modbus 16 bit numbers to 32 bit numbers, How Real (Floating Point) and 32-bit Data is Encoded in Modbus RTU Messages, The Importance of byte order, Determining byte order, Practical Help and Hubs vs Switches - Using Wireshark to sniff network packets
Modbus Specifications - Download the current versions of Modbus specifications and implementation guides - from modbus.org.
Modbus Technical Resources - from modbus.org.
Ricardo Saat's Modbus page - Some useful information here.
A Modbus Users' Community - a useful Forum.
Free Modbus Software - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
PROFIBUS - This multidrop technology has been available for a number of years and is particularly suitable in the manufacturing environment. Does not have Control in the field option at present. Particularly favoured in Germany where it was developed. Lots of technical information can be found at this excellent Profibus site. You have to register to get to it.
Profibus - A comprehensive 44 page technical paper from Samson Controls.
Fieldbus Wars revisited? There has been an interesting war of words over the article Profibus PA and Foundation Fieldbus - A Cost Comparison by James Powell of Seimens Milltronics. The response by Jim Cahill of Emerson Process Management is a beauty!
The following papers are from usprofibus.com
Why use a fieldbus? - This article details the advantages of using a fieldbus system - also available as an MP3 file.
PROFIBUS PA vs. Foundation Fieldbus - a cost comparison, also available as an MP3 file.
A Guide to Troubleshooting PROFIBUS PA Networks - A systematic approach makes network set-up and trouble-shooting easy - James Powell
The Value Proposition of PROFIBUS in the Hybrid Industries - This ARC Advisory Group white paper shows the benefits of PROFIBUS in the process industries. And almost all process industries have a discrete need as well, hence are hybrid.
PROFINET: An All-Encompassing Industrial Ethernet Solution - ARC presents an overview of PROFINET and some application stories.
Tool Calling Interface. Device tools perform user functions such as parameterization and diagnostics directly from the automation-system engineering tool. Device tools are based on a Tool Calling Interface (TCI).
The PTO and PROFI Interface Centre - one-day training classes throughout North America . There are three different curricula covering PROFIBUS, PROFIBUS in the process industry, and PROFINET.
The PROFIBUS and PROFINET community group blog discusses many aspects of the technology.
MinutePROFINET YouTube Channel - A new YouTube channel has been created by PI North America called MinutePROFINET. It describes features of PROFINET through short ~60 sec videos. As the series progresses, expect more technical aspects of the technology to be helpfully explained. Check out the first two, and subscribe: click here.
More PROFINET Videos - Sometimes one minute is not enough to find out about PROFINET. For those occasions, try some more detailed videos from the PROFI Interface Center, featuring Hunter Harrington.
Why should you Choose Intrinsic Safety rather than Flameproof or FNICO for Fieldbus Applications?
The answer here is “why not” choose Intrinsic Safety since a fieldbus power supply is required for Exd, whilst a Fieldbus Non Incendive Concept (FNICO) power supply is required for FNICO (Zone 2 only) and a Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept (FISCO) power supply for Zone 1.
Zone 0 applications can be accommodated by additional hardware and use of the Entity concept.The Entity concept limits the number of devices on a segment to about 4.
FISCO (Zone 1 and 2) , power supplies for different gas groups are available, these support the following number of instruments (based on MTL data).
(1) Gas group IIC Power Supply - you can connect approximately 8 instruments in a segment, this is based on a current draw of 15mA per instrument (this must be checked) and total current availability of 120mA and if bandwidth is not an issue.
(2) Gas group IIB Power Supply - 265mA available which can support up to 16 instruments
There is a trunk and spur length restriction on FISCO network which you need to be aware of, for MTL power supplies this is 1.0 km for a IIC gas group and 1.9km for a IIB gas group per standard FF816 and AG163 and 60m per IEC 60079-27 respectively. For more information the FF Intrinsic Safety Application Guide AG163 can be obtained from the Fieldbus Foundation.
The maximum permitted trunk length is then determined from the requirement to have a minimum of 9 volts available at the field device terminals. The trunk length results after applying Ohm's law to the combination of cable resistance (usually 50 ohms per kilometer), current flow, and the minimum power supply voltage.
There are many permutations of the possible combinations, but if an average field device current is about 15 mA, then a typical IIC power supply can feed eight devices at the end of 500 meters of trunk. Typical worked examples can be found in the Fieldbus Foundation document AG 163.
FNICO (Zone 2 only) - provides more power on the trunk, this again is dependant on the relevant gas group.
(1) Gas group IIC Power Supply - you can connect approximately 12 instruments in a segment, this is based on a current draw of 15mA per instrument (this must be checked) and total current availability of 180mA and if bandwidth is not an issue.
(2) Gas group IIB Power Supply - 320mA available which can support up to 20 instruments
Of course with the Exd and FNICO view of the world one can get more devices on a segment, however realistically more than 12 should not be installed anyway (even then the design has to be carefully scrutinised) so there is very little difference.
Thus for IS there is minimal change in cabinet space requirements, hardware and complexity.
The benefits are really cost and HSE related as follows:
Non armoured cables can be used (in cable racks), however armoured cable should be used in high traffic areas where damage may occur, however as the instruments are likely to be close coupled this would be a rarity.
Whilst in some installations a ”cold” work permit is required for working on IS, it is not really necessary as the concept means that it is quite safe to work on the instrument live if necessary.
Exd requires that the loop is switched off to access/maintain the instrument which actually will mean the segment, so not only one instrument is isolated. The only other alternative is to work under a hot work permit. This is again a cost adder and involves risk.
There is always the figment of imagination by people not really HA cognisant that Exd is “Easy” and requires less work than Exi both in design and maintenance. Actually this is not true, Exd is not forgiving at all whereas IS is in that as long as you have selected the correct equipment in the first place and a barrier is in place even live working is permitted. How often do you see bolts missing, incorrect gaskets, poor weatherproofing, wrong and poor installed glanding etc on an Exd installation. This is not to say that there is no need to inspect and maintain IS installations, of course you do, however if a gland is poorly installed it will not mean that there is a potential for an explosion.
Whilst the amount of live working will be minimised with FF diagnostics and “remote access” to transmitter data there will be the odd occasion when it will be necessary, also adding an instrument to a segment means that live access is also possible.
Live working is allowed on FNICO circuits however you must make sure that the equipment is certified as Exnl (Energy Limited) or Exi . Exn equipment must be disconnected. This concept is suitable for Zone 2 applications only.
If Exi transmitters are used in a FNICO environment it is necessary to set up strict rules. What happens if the zoning changes?….as there is an Exia certified transmitter installed this could lead to confusion.
Thus the FISCO solution has advantages in that;
- There are no mixed protection techniques
- Live Working
- It is suitable for both Zone 1 and 2 applications
- Simple design rules are in place
- Devices are readily available.
- There are methods for integrating with the Entity concept.
- Up to 8 devices in a IIC gas group, 16 devices in a IIB gas group
- Elimination of cable parameter calculations
- Simplification of the safety documentation - just a list of devices
- Addition of new devices without reviewing the safety case
As a minimum 12 devices can be installed on a FNICO segment (based on 15mA current draw per instrument), rather than the 8 devices for FISCO, there are some cost savings with this approach, however each site has to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of the increased housekeeping associated with mixed systems for Zone 1 and 2 applications.
More useful information can be found at the following links:
Fieldbus technology: Cut through the confusion- Ian Verhappen - ICEPros Inc thanks to chemicalprocessing.com.
Economic Fieldbus Solutions for Hazardous Area installations - Jonas Berge.
Fieldbus Non-Incendive Concept takes FISCO into Zone 2 and Division 2 Hazardous Areas - Phil Saward MTL Instruments
FISCO- what is it?- From MTL Instruments
FNICO - What is it? - From MTL Instruments
Managing and Technical Editor - ICEweb